File Name: diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths .zip
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Helminths are master regulators of host immune responses utilising complex mechanisms to dampen host protective Th2-type responses and favour long-term persistence. Such evasion mechanisms ensure mutual survival of both the parasite and the host. In this paper, we present recent findings on the cells that are targeted by helminths and the molecules and mechanisms that are induced during infection. We discuss the impact of these factors on the host response as well as their effect in preventing the development of aberrant allergic inflammation. We also examine recent findings on helminth-derived molecules that can be used as tools to pinpoint the underlying mechanisms of immune regulation or to determine new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. These pathogens induce very different immune responses in comparison to bacteria, fungi, viruses, or protozoa. Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system are important for the initiation of type 2 immunity, which characterises the response to helminth infection, as well as allergic reactions.
The vertebrate immune system has evolved in concert with a broad range of infectious agents, including ubiquitous helminth worm parasites. The constant pressure of helminth infections has been a powerful force in shaping not only how immunity is initiated and maintained, but also how the body self-regulates and controls untoward immune responses to minimize overall harm. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in defining the immune cell types and molecules that are mobilized in response to helminth infection. Finally, we more broadly consider how these immunological players are blended and regulated in order to accommodate persistent infection or to mount a vigorous protective response and achieve sterile immunity. Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms helminths and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. Discover the latest research on anthelmintics here.
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Here, Judith Allen and Rick Maizels discuss how these responses are generated and provide protective immunity during helminth infection.
Helminth parasites are complex metazoans that belong to different taxonomic families but that collectively share the capacity to downregulate the host immune response directed toward themselves parasite-specific immunoregulation. Helminth-induced immunoregulation occurs through the induction of regulatory T cells or Th2-type cells or both. However, secreted or excreted parasite metabolites, proteins, or extracellular vesicles or a combination of these may also directly induce signaling pathways in host cells. Helminth parasites belong to a diverse group of complex metazoans from different taxonomic families.
Publications - A, Allen, J. Parasitology : Hewitson, J.
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