File Name: psychology and culture thinking feeling and behaving in a global context .zip
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Personality , a characteristic way of thinking , feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. The term personality has been defined in many ways, but as a psychological concept two main meanings have evolved. The first pertains to the consistent differences that exist between people: in this sense, the study of personality focuses on classifying and explaining relatively stable human psychological characteristics. The second meaning emphasizes those qualities that make all people alike and that distinguish psychological man from other species; it directs the personality theorist to search for those regularities among all people that define the nature of man as well as the factors that influence the course of lives.
It drives individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways; in essence, it is what makes each individual unique. Over time, these patterns strongly influence personal expectations, perceptions, values, and attitudes.
In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. It is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influence his or her behavior towards goal achievement. Each person has unique ways of projecting these states. Lawrence A. Hence personality is a sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. It is individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving.
It is the supreme realization of the innate habit of a living being. It is an act of courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal conditions of existence, coupled with the greatest possible freedom of self-determination.
For example- he has a very pleasant personality or he was an influential personality in genetic engineering. Generally, it is used to indicate the external outlook of an individual. In philosophy, it means internal quality. But in social psychology, the term personality indicates-neither the external or outward pattern nor does it indicate the internal quality. It means an integrated whole. Various thinkers, social psychologists, and others have defined personality in various ways.
It is a sum of physical, mental and social qualities in an integrated manner. Thus, personality is the sum of the ideas, attitudes, and values of a person which determine his role in society and form an integral part of his character. Personality is acquired by the individual as a result of his participation in group life. It refers to something much more essential and enduring about a person.
Personality refers to internal as well as external qualities, some of which are quite general. But it is unique to each individual. It is not possible for a person to reproduce or imitate the qualities of the personality of another person.
Personality is mainly composed of the persistent or permanent qualities that exhibit themselves in form of social behavior and attempt to make an adjustment with the environment.
Personality represents the process of learning. It takes place in reference to the environment. We do not acquire all the traits of personality at once. In other words, it means that when we come in contact with other members of society, we acquire certain qualities while We exhibit certain others.
All these come to form personality. They are, in fact, integrated into one. This integration is nothing but a result of organization which may be different from man to man.
The behavior of a person directed to one particular individual may differ from the behavior of another person. That is why; we put the condition of a suitable environment. This suitability is concerned with individual specificity. There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations. Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.
Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways. Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships, and other social interactions.
Actually, personality is the unique combination of patterns that influence behavior, thought, motivation, and emotion in a human being. There are many approaches to the modem psychological study of personality, including the psychodynamic, learning, humanistic, biological, trait, and cultural perspectives. It can be described as how a person affects others, how he understands, and views himself, and his pattern of inner and outer measurable traits.
It encompasses the relatively stable feelings, thoughts, and behavioral patterns a person has. Having this knowledge is also useful for placing people in jobs and organizations. Having a strong personality is the key to success. This is also a key determinant of good leadership. A person with a positive attitude can direct his thoughts, control his emotions and regulate his attitude. Every person has a different personality and there are a lot of factors which contribute to that personality.
Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised; our early conditioning; the norms among our family, friends, and social groups; and other influences that we experience.
It establishes the attitudes , values , norms, and perceptions of an individual. Based on the cultures and traditions, different senses of right and wrong are formed in individuals. These physical factors include the overall physical structure of a person: his height, weight, color, sex, beauty, body language, etc. Physical factors are one of the major reasons for that. Most of the physical structures change from time to time, and so does the personality.
With exercises, cosmetics, surgeries etc. The situational factors can be commonly observed when a person behaves contrastingly and exhibits different traits and characteristics. In this way, situational factors impact a personality in a significant way. They often bring out the traits of a person that are not commonly seen.
This aspect is very important for organization behavior because the manager has control over the organizational situation. Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical structure, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition, and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by the parents.
Hereditary predisposes a certain mental, physical and emotional states. It has been established through research that those psychological characteristics can be transmitted through hereditary. However such conclusive proof is not available for human beings. Family and social groups have the most significant impact on personality development. Parents and other family members have a strong influence on the personality development of the child. Parents have more effect on personality development as compared to other members of the family.
These groups have their impact through socialization and identification process. The identification process occurs when a person tries to identify himself with some person to whom he feels ideal in the family. First identification can be viewed as the similarity of behavior between the child and the model.
Third, it can be viewed as the process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model.
Culture is the underlying determinant of human decision making. Each culture expects and trains its members to behave in a way that is acceptable to the group. There is definitely some relationship between intelligence and personality. Intelligence is mainly hereditary. Persons who are very intelligent can make a better adjustment in home, school, and society than those persons who are less intelligent.
Boys are generally more assertive, tough-minded and vigorous. They have better need to succeed with regard to interest and aptitudes. Boys show interest in machinery and outdoor activities. They prefer adventures. But girls are less vigorous games. They are quieter and interested in personal appearance. They are more injured by personal, emotional and social problems. Beyond the joint influence of these factors however, the relative contribution of each factor to personality varies with the character or personality process involved and perhaps with the individual concerned.
Personality plays a key role in organizational behavior because of the way that people think, feel, and behave effects many aspects of the workplace. In the workplace, personality affects such things as motivation, leadership, performance, and conflict.
The more that management understands how personality in organizational behavior works, the better equipped they are to be effective and accomplish their goals. Weakly structured organizations with loosely defined roles tend to get the most impact, compared to strongly structured organizations with more defined roles. People have many different views of the world that affect their personalities. When a situation arises, an individual will handle it based upon his or her personal values, beliefs, and personality traits.
There are 2 types of values governing our behaviors in an organization; personal values and the commonly held values of an organization. We tend to act in accordance with these values, which in turn will define what is ethical and what it is not. The beliefs and values remain relatively stable regardless of what situation we are in.
Our feelings and behaviors, on the other hand, tend to be easily influenced by the environment in which we function. Traits such as openness, emotional stability, and agreeableness all predict that an individual will have less conflict, work better in teams, and have positive attitudes about his or her work. People with this type of personality should be placed in situations where they would be working with or leading others. Positive-interpersonal skill is a personality trait that greatly affects the workplace.
Individuals who exhibit this trait generally enjoy working with other people, and they have the empathy and sensitivity that enables them to get along well with others.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Vaughn Published Psychology. Introductory Concepts. Identity and Culture. Intercultural Interactions and Acculturation.
There are different ways of thinking about human behavior. Psychologists utilize a variety of perspectives when studying how people think, feel, and behave. Some researchers focus on one specific school of thought, such as the biological perspective, while others take a more eclectic approach that incorporates multiple points of view. There is no single perspective that is "better" than another; each simply emphasizes different aspects of human behavior. The early years of psychology were dominated by a succession of these different schools of thought.
When registering for courses, please be aware of the potential conflicts between courses or exam dates on courses. The planning of course activities at Roskilde University is based on the recommended study programs which do not overlap. The examination is in two parts: 1. Active, satisfactory and regular participation. Written assignments on set questions.
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Join NursingCenter to get uninterrupted access to this Article. New York: Psychology Press; This book is part of the Psychology Focus series designed to provide students with a new focus on key topic areas in psychology. According to the publisher, each short, compact book presents clear, in-depth coverage of a discrete area with many applied examples; assumes no prior knowledge of psychology; has been written by an experienced teacher; and has chapter summaries, suggestions for further reading, and a glossary of key terms. As globalization increases, so too do the misunderstandings and miscommunication around social, linguistic, gender, racial, religious, and cultural factors.
But while there are tricks we can use to teach children to talk, count, draw or respect others, a surprisingly big part of how they develop is determined by the culture they grow up in. Child development is a dynamic, interactive process. Every child is unique in interacting with the world around them, and what they invoke and receive from others and the environment also shapes how they think and behave. Children growing up in different cultures receive specific inputs from their environment. Language is one of the many ways through which culture affects development. We know from research on adults that languages forge how people think and reason. Moreover, the content and focus of what people talk about in their conversations also vary across cultures.
It drives individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways; in essence, it is what makes each individual unique. Over time, these patterns strongly influence personal expectations, perceptions, values, and attitudes. In addition to this, personality arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. It is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influence his or her behavior towards goal achievement. Each person has unique ways of projecting these states. Lawrence A. Hence personality is a sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
Request PDF | Psychology and culture: Thinking, feeling, and behaving in global contexts | With increasing globalization, countries face social.
ГЛАВА 33 Токуген Нуматака смотрел в окно и ходил по кабинету взад-вперед как зверь в клетке. Человек, с которым он вступил в контакт, Северная Дакота, не звонил. Проклятые американцы. Никакого представления о пунктуальности. Он позвонил бы Северной Дакоте сам, но у него не было номера его телефона. Нуматака терпеть не мог вести дела подобным образом, он ненавидел, когда хозяином положения был кто-то. С самого начала его преследовала мысль, что звонки Северной Дакоты - это западня, попытка японских конкурентов выставить его дураком.
Беккер держался той же версии: он - немецкий турист, готовый заплатить хорошие деньги за рыжеволосую, которую сегодня нанял его брат. На этот раз ему очень вежливо ответили по-немецки, но снова сказали, что рыжих девочек у них. - Keine Rotkopfe, простите. - Женщина положила трубку. Вторая попытка также ни к чему не привела.
Беккер кивнул. - Ты же сказала, что не колешься. Девушка засмеялась: - Это же чудо-маркер. Я чуть кожу не содрала, пытаясь его стереть. Да и краска вонючая. Беккер посмотрел внимательнее. В свете ламп дневного света он сумел разглядеть под красноватой припухлостью смутные следы каких-то слов, нацарапанных на ее руке.
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