File Name: hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology .zip
Beginning in the s, fracturing was used to stimulate or rather shoot rock formations for oil production. To increase both initial flow and ultimate extraction, liquid and solidified nitroglycerin was used in these years. The concept of hydraulic fracturing with pressure instead of explosives grew in the s. Beginning in , water-based fluids were developed using different types of gelling agents. Nowadays, aqueous fluids such as acid, water, brines, and water-based foams are used in most fracturing treatments. The breakdown of the fluids to decrease viscosity is mostly carried out by use of oxidizing agents.
With the introduction of hydraulic fracturing technology, the United States has become the largest natural gas producer in the world with a substantial portion of the production coming from shale plays. In this review, we examined current hydraulic fracturing literature including associated wastewater management on quantity and quality of groundwater. Furthermore, Underground Injection Control UIC requirements under SDWA should be extended to hydraulic fracturing operations regardless if diesel fuel is used as a fracturing fluid or not. One of the biggest barriers that hinder the advancement of our knowledge on the hydraulic fracturing process is the lack of transparency of chemicals used in the practice. Federal laws mandating hydraulic companies to disclose fracturing fluid composition and concentration not only to federal and state regulatory agencies but also to health care professionals would encourage this practice.
Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluid Technology, Second Edition, continues to deliver an easy-to-use manual of fluid formulations to meet specific job needs. Enhanced with more environmental aspects, this reference helps engineers and fluid specialists select and use the appropriate chemicals for any hydraulic fracturing job. New information concerning nanotechnology applications such as wellbore sealant and proppants are added to enhance operations in a sustainable manner while saving on production costs. Other updates include low recovery of fracturing water in shale, surfactants for waterless hydraulic fracturing, and expanded produced water treatment. Rounding out with updated references and patents for easy reference, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluid Technology, Second Edition, gives engineers a critical guide on selecting better products to boost productions while strengthening environmental enhancement and consideration.
Exposure to hydraulic fracturing fluid in drinking water increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes. Unfortunately, most individuals and researchers are unaware of the health risks posed by a particular well due to the diversity of chemical ingredients used across sites. We found that wells in Alabama use a disproportionately high number of ingredients targeting estrogen pathways, while Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania use a disproportionately high number of ingredients targeting testosterone pathways. Researchers can utilize WellExplorer to study health outcomes related to exposure to fracturing chemicals in their population-based cohorts. Community members can use this resource to search their home or work locations e. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique used to release the oil or gas held within naturally occurring pockets of shale or other dense rock often contained deep within the earth Figure 1 1. Schematic detailing the hydraulic fracturing process.
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When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well.
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