File Name: green technologies in food production and processing .zip
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As we move into the future, decisions on food purchases will increasingly be influenced not only by price and quality but by social and environmental factors, such as the sustainability of technologies used for food production and processing and their environmental and health impacts. Growing consumer awareness about the impact of processing and production practices on the environment, the high energy consumption of certain processes, health impacts of some of the technologies used in processing, and a heightened social and industrial consciousness to reduce the carbon-footprint are examples of factors influencing food choice. As a result, farmers and food manufacturers will increasingly be interested in identifying and using greener economically viable technologies for food production and processing. Some producers are already responding with the use of organic inputs in processing, use of recyclable and good-for-the-environment packaging, establishing just employer-employee relationships, and reducing animal testing in product development. Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing provides a comprehensive review of the current status of the agriculture and agri-food sectors in regards to environmental sustainability and material and energy stewardship, and provides strategies that can be used by industries to enhance the use of environmentally-friendly technologies for food production and processing.
Food scientists need to work together with agriculturists, nutritionists, civil society, and governments to develop an integrative approach to feed a growing population sustainably. Current attention on food sustainability mainly concentrates on production agriculture and on nutrition, health, and well-being. Food processing, the necessary conversion of raw materials to edible, functional, and culturally acceptable food products, is an important link between production and consumption within the food value chain.
Without increased attention to the role of food processing for a maintainable food supply, we are unlikely to succeed in addressing the mounting challenges in delivering sustainable diets for all people. The objective is to draw on multidisciplinary insights to demonstrate why food processing is integral to a future food supply. We aim to exemplify the importance of essential relevant sustainability indicators and impact assessment for developing informed strategies to feed the world within planetary boundaries.
We provide a brief outlook on sustainable food sources, review food processing, and recommend future directions.
We highlight the challenges and suggest strategies for improving the sustainability of food systems, to hopefully provide a catalyst for considering implementable initiatives for improving food and nutrition security. A sustainable future food supply in the face of depleting natural resources, climate change, rapid urbanization, changing demographics, and a growing global population is a global challenge. The demand for resources has paralleled the history and development of mankind. The period of unprecedented growth and the scientific and technological progress after the two World Wars in the twentieth century caused significant depletion to existing resources and the environment.
Increasingly, the focus is on providing sustainable diets that have low environmental impacts and improving the well-being of populations both now and into the future 4. There is an imperative for all parts of the food chain, from production, processing, packaging, storage, to the delivery of food to the consumer, to take steps to make efficient use of resources in each of their operations to ensure healthy diets for an increasing population, against changing demographics, and an increasingly urbanized world 5.
Food processing is a critical element in the food supply chain. Processed foods have been part of civilization since ancient times. Fire use by humans is related to cooking. Knapped stones in Kenya, dating back to 1. Meat has been roasted more than 1. Other foods available in the BC era include pickles, noodles, chocolate, bacon, fermented flavorings, and sugar, and with many other foods introduced through the ages 7.
Even in ancient times, both primary e. There have been major brands and processing companies that capitalized on the demand for processed food for the masses through the years. Food processing also creates important opportunities for generating income and employment for communities 8. Processed foods are an integral part of today's diet and a significant contributor to food and nutrition security 9. Sustainable food systems are fundamental to ensuring sustainable development and securing food and nutritional security for all populations.
Pimentel and Pimentel 11 compared fossil energy requirements vs. A US National Academy of Science—National Research Council selection of unsolved food science—related problems and suggested approaches for solutions in developing countries from 12 reads like a fairly recent document, suggesting the lack of progress in the area. The current European Strategy and Policy Analysis System report 13 points out that food and water supply will be about managing scarcity.
The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO High Level Panel of Experts report on Food Security and Nutrition 14 recommends that the key points of intervention to manage scarce resources is through maximizing nutrition entering and minimizing nutrition exiting the food supply chain. Another HLPE report provides insights into agroecological and other innovative approaches for sustainable agriculture and food systems that enhance food security and nutrition Willett et al. Lillford and Hermansson 17 stressed these omissions by addressing key global challenges and the critical needs of food science and technology including the design of sustainable processes and engineering systems, and the use of emerging processes requiring reduced water and energy as one of the key missions for food science and technology.
For the sustainability of the food processing industry, the challenge is to develop strategies that improve social, environmental, and economic sustainability 18 , while staying within planetary boundaries, addressing the United Nations' sustainable development goals and The Natural Step performance targets for sustainability, so that the food industry maintains its social license to operate Of the 17 sustainable development goals of the United Nations, 10 have been related to food sustainability.
The Earth Overshoot Day , the day all humanity has used the nature's resource budget for the entire year, was July This date is the earliest ever and that even at the current rate we would need 1. However, it remains unclear how far the field has progressed as a scientific discipline.
Various indicators have been used to measure sustainability, but most cover environmental, social, and economic aspects, with additional specific indicators and finer degrees of granularity used by different authors. Early work on sustainable benchmarking of supply chains included pollution, labor standards, and ethics in food supplier relations and waste issues, as well as environmental, social, and economic measures.
Principles and assessment of sustainability, food processing applications, food manufacturing operations, and food distribution and consumption have been discussed Gustafson et al. These were adapted by Chen et al. Sustainability has also been examined through the lens of product and nutrient demands, while incorporating interlinkages between different food supply chains, considering sourcing, processing and transportation, environmental aspects e.
The use of different indicators and methodology may lead to different conclusions and priorities for action. Therefore, there needs to be consensus among various stakeholders on the choice of the sustainability indicators and performance targets. International standardization for global food supply chains is important for monitoring performance against sustainability targets, regulatory compliance, and consumer communication Recently, a sourcing strategy along the food chain, reflecting nutritional and sustainable aspects and leading to an ingredient branding concept, has been proposed Chen et al.
There is a need for the development of renewable and sustainable sources of food. A significant challenge is to meet the increasing global demand for proteins sustainably. There is increasing demand also for plant-based proteins due to the negative consumer perception of animal sources of protein, increased consumer demand for vegetarian options, and an aversion in Western cultures about insect-based protein sources for food applications Animal-based foods produce higher levels of greenhouse gases GHGs than plant-based foods.
Greenhouse gases are also associated with climate change The increased demand for animal-based protein is expected to intensify pressure on land due to the need to produce more animal feed This in turn will increase the conversion of forests, wetlands, and natural grasslands into agricultural lands, which has negative consequences for GHG emissions, biodiversity, pollution, and other ecosystem health indicators.
Climate change effects on agriculture are expected to threaten the global production of plant protein products from traditional sources i. Other novel sources of protein include alternative plants, aquatic photosynthetic organisms, microorganisms, and insects. There is interest in the cactus pear as it requires fewer inputs water, nutrients than traditional sources cereals, legumes , offers the opportunity for valorization of biomass commonly treated as waste cladodes , and has the potential for cultivation in arid and semiarid areas Aquatic photosynthetic organisms microalgae, cyanobacteria, duckweed do not directly compete with food crops for land and water and have the advantages of year-round harvesting capability, high biomass yields, ability to be cultivated on non-arable land utilizing non-irrigation water brackish water or seawater , higher protein yield, and resistance to pest and diseases Microorganisms can increase the protein content of organic substrates, offering the opportunity to valorize biomass currently treated as waste e.
Insects perform better in terms of feed conversion efficiency, and they reproduce rapidly, and they can mitigate risk of transmitting zoonotic diseases to humans Approximately a third of the food produced is wasted An emerging source of new ingredients for the food processing industry is the edible portion of food; this is currently wasted to the food supply.
Steps should be taken to recover and reuse edible biomass that is currently wasted to make it a new source of raw materials for food processing Reducing food loss and waste should be part of the solution for sustainable food systems, alongside other strategies to increase agricultural productivity An assessment of environmental as well as economic costs for implementing interventions to reduce food waste is necessary to guide the prioritization of beneficial interventions Historical developments in food processing have been centered on thermal processing and utilization of natural renewable resources.
These include the use of low or high temperature for processing and preservation, with William Cullen introducing the first artificial cold process in the s to present-day energy-efficient refrigeration and freezing systems.
Similarly, in early s was the first use of heat for food preservation by Nicholas Appert in response to Napoleon Bonaparte requirements to feed the French army, which has now progressed to modern energy-efficient thermal-processing equipment. Figure 1 provides a summary of major conventional and emerging processes that can be used for developing products in food processing and supply chain.
The key existing and potential sources for food process operations are summarized in Table 1. Emerging processes, such as high-pressure processing, pulsed electric field PEF , pulsed lights, cold atmospheric plasma, microwave, ohmic heating, and ultrasound, are being pursued as alternatives as they are seen as more sustainable processes. The main motivation for the development of emerging, gentle, and mainly non-thermal technologies was to find alternatives or synergies with traditional thermal and chemical preservation processes 41 — There is also high-pressure assisted sterilization 44 , as well as PEF-supported sterilization processes Toepfl et al.
Green processing food processing techniques, with the main emphasis on extraction processes, were presented by Chemat et al. Henchion et al. Lillford and Hermansson 17 identified the design of sustainable process and system engineering influencing novel processes using reduced water and energy and elimination of waste in production, distribution, and consumption as two of their seven key missions regarding global challenges and critical needs of food science and technology.
Figure 1. Traditional and emerging technologies and approaches used along the food chain. Table 1. Existing natural elements used A and potential sources for B food processing. Table 1 lists potential sources for food processing that may be considered for improving the sustainability of the food supply. Examples for future directions include the exploitation of liquids under negative pressures 49 , pressure freezing—air drying 50 , high hydrostatic pressure—assisted freezing and thawing 51 , re-evaluation of strong magnetic fields 52 , or expansion of pulsed process application beyond pulsed light and electric fields There is a need to test the effectiveness of other gas combinations besides the current sources mainly argon and nitrogen that take advantage of readily available energy sources, such as air and solar energy, including the development of intelligent combination processes, such as in solar dehydration.
In addition, the use of modern, highly effective solar collectors for process equipment improvements, such as solar-driven extruders, water decontamination units or refrigerators, and improved bioconversion technologies to battle toxins e.
The application of nanotechnology in food has potential to contribute to sustainable food chains. Nanotechnology encompasses understanding and control of matter on the nanometer scale, which enables alteration of the material properties of products to suit purpose and improve functionality.
Nanotechnological innovations in the food and agriculture include encapsulated ingredients that provide protection of sensitive bioactives e. Smart sensors help inform timely decision making for appropriate interventions, and superior packaging materials can potentially reduce wastage in the supply chain.
An assessment of the safety of nanostructured materials coupled with appropriate regulation and legislation will be necessary to facilitate uptake of nanotechnological advances and consumer acceptance The integration of sustainability should be an additional and new dimension of food security A multidisciplinary approach is required to understand consumption patterns, social norms, behavior, and lifestyles.
This approach will help develop acceptable transitions to reduce waste and lower ecological footprints and carbon emissions to develop food ecosystems for sustainable urbanization This requires integration of rural sectors and better connectivity to the cities, while creating opportunities for economic development, employment, and rural food security. The science-based development of urban ecological systems needs attention especially for climate change adaptation There is wide variation in reporting by food processors There should be mandatory reporting on agreed indicators, followed by corrective action when appropriate.
This includes the need to address Life Cycle Analyses of food processes and processed foods as exemplified by Smetana et al. The issues of transport of raw materials and food also need increased attention
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book will review the current status of the agriculture and agri-food sector in regard to green processing and provide strategies that can be used by the sector to enhance the use of environmentally-friendly technologies for production, processing. The book will look at the full spectrum from farm to fork beginning with chapters on life cycle analysis and environmental impact assessment of different agri-food sectors. Technologies for waste treatment, "reducing, reusing, recycling", and better water and energy stewardship will be reviewed. In addition, the last section of the book will attempt to look at technologies and processes that reduce the generation of process-induced toxins e.
Food scientists need to work together with agriculturists, nutritionists, civil society, and governments to develop an integrative approach to feed a growing population sustainably. Current attention on food sustainability mainly concentrates on production agriculture and on nutrition, health, and well-being. Food processing, the necessary conversion of raw materials to edible, functional, and culturally acceptable food products, is an important link between production and consumption within the food value chain. Without increased attention to the role of food processing for a maintainable food supply, we are unlikely to succeed in addressing the mounting challenges in delivering sustainable diets for all people. The objective is to draw on multidisciplinary insights to demonstrate why food processing is integral to a future food supply.
Green technologies in food processing. Front Matter. Pages PDF Green separation technologies in food processing: supercritical-CO 2 fluid and.
Not only has demand for all three increased, but they are also strongly interlinked: food production requires water and energy ; traditional energy production demands water resources; agriculture provides a potential energy source. This article focuses on the environmental impacts of food. Ensuring everyone in the world has access to a nutritious diet in a sustainable way is one of the greatest challenges we face. We cover the human aspects of food and nutrition in various entries, including hunger and undernourishment , micronutrient deficiency , food per person , diet compositions and obesity.
With over stunning photographs of spectacular cloud formations, this book reintroduces you to the inspiring beauty of the clouds that grace our sky. The images presented in this book existed for only fleeting periods of time in the millions of AAFC provides information, research and technology, and policies and programs to achieve security of the food system, health of the environment, and innovation for growth. Boye leads a comprehensive research study in value-added processing of plant-based foods and food allergies.
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