File Name: growth and development of tourism in india .zip
In the last few years, India has gained exceptional growth in the tourism industry. It owns the status of one of the most preferred destinations for overseas and domestic travelers today. Ever wondered what could possibly be the factors responsible for the development of tourism in India in recent years?
Tourism and the Economy in General The most important economic feature of activities related to the tourism sector is that they contribute to three high-priority goals of developing countries: the generation of income, employment, and foreign-exchange earnings.
In this respect, the tourism sector can play an important role as a driving force of economic development. The impact this industry can have in the different stages of economic development depends on the specific characteristics of each country.
Given the complexity of tourism consumption, its economic impact is felt widely in other production sectors, contributing in each case toward achieving the aims of accelerated development. A major difficulty in defining the boundaries of the tourism sector is to ascertain what investment costs should be ascribed to the development of tourism. Because of its interdependence with other sectors of the economy, it is difficult to analyze and plan for tourism.
The lack of reliable statistical data hampers identification of the mechanisms by which tourism generates growth, as well as its potential for development. In these cases, long-term programs for tourism development have been designed. Nature and heritage tourism development has investment needs that differ, in certain respects, from traditional tourist hotel development. There may be a greater need to improve access to the attraction site or facility, and for a mode of development that does not interfere with a sensitive habitat or historic area.
Elements of Supply and Demand Three primary factors influence the level of nature and heritage tourism demand: overall tourism growth, the growth in specialty travel, and increasing awareness of and concern for the environment. Each of these factors is in turn influenced by a number of elements. The rapid growth of specialty travel is fueled by some of the same factors, but there are a number of additional explanations: the boom in outdoor recreation and the new interest in health and fitness, for example.
Tourism and GDP The tourism sector in the Latin American and Caribbean countries contributes significantly to GDP earnings, though this contribution is not reflected in the domestic income and product accounts of most countries.
In the Bahamas, tourism accounts for about one-third of GDP, and most sectors of economic activity are directly or indirectly linked to it. In Barbados, tourism is the leading economic sector, accounting for 15 percent of the GDP in In Jamaica, the tourism contribution to GDP was Not all tourism receipts are retained within the economy. In fact, there is an outflow of foreign exchange for some of the goods and services consumed by visitors, as well as for capital goods invested in tourism and for payments abroad.
These needs are also dependent on the availability of substitutes for imported products and on the qualitative level of the tourist supply in each country. Tourist Income Multiplier and Value-Added The tourist income multiplier tim is a coefficient that expresses the amount of income generated by a unit of tourism expenditure. Value is added when a product is developed, processed, refined, or marketed in a manner that allows it to be sold at a higher price than the prices of the raw materials, services, and components bought for its production.
Countries with large domestic agricultural sectors supplying tourist consumption are well positioned to achieve higher levels of value-added in the tourism sector. It describes how income generated by the sector is distributed. The analysis can be undertaken at a spatial and at a functional level. At the spatial level, tourists prefer to travel in regions with little industrial development.
They also tend toward areas of little agricultural value. For these reasons, tourism can become a dynamic force in regional economies. Within a country, tourism demand originates in urban concentrations where the highest incomes are found. Internationally, a portion of the tourism consumption by developed countries occurs in developing countries, favoring the process of international income redistribution.
At the functional level, the income generated tends to favor employment, which is estimated to contribute more to the total value-added of the industry than other factors do, because so much of tourism involves personal services.
It has been estimated that, worldwide, tourism directly or indirectly supports sixty-five million jobs, including hotel managers and staff, taxi drivers, tour operators, and shop attendants, among others. Secondary employment is generated in agriculture, industry, handicrafts, and services. Tourism compares favorably with other economic activities as a generator of both employment and income, both directly and diffused through the economy.
The same investment would create only sixteen new jobs in the petroleum industry and fifteen in metallurgy. According to the CTO, the 77, hotel rooms in fifteen Caribbean countries equaled 88, jobs, or almost 1. Hotels account for about 75 percent of tourism employment distribution, transport, finance and insurance, and entertainment make up the other 25 percent.
Every room in a three- or four-star hotel in Venezuela generates one job, according to the IDB; for five-star hotels, each room creates 1. According to the OAS study, one job generated by a hotel generates one more job elsewhere in the tourism trade and two in the rest of the economy; thus one job generates an estimated three others. The tourism sector, particularly hotels, can play an important role in attracting foreign investment and providing training for nationals.
Many tourism ventures include foreign equity participation and technical knowledge about the construction and operation of hotels. The former represents a mobilization of international financial resources, which can be regarded as a desirable substitute for foreign borrowing. Outside management can be used to train large numbers of nationals who would not otherwise have access to training.
Furthermore, tourism provides a stimulus for the development of other ancillary businesses catering to tourists. An illustration of this can be found in Mexico, where foreign companies are seeking investment opportunities in the tourism sector because it is perceived to be less sensitive to trade agreements than, for example, manufacturing.
The funds are being used to develop four resorts on Margarita Island, where approximately 60 percent of all tourism projects under development are located.
Tourism activity in the Caribbean does not usually require sophisticated technology, and can absorb more personnel without skilled training than other industries. Tourism offers developing countries the possibility of diversifying their export earnings, particularly given that i traditional exports are subject to price fluctuations and ii there is a trend toward reducing the administrative, monetary, and border formalities that affect international tourism mobility.
The tourism sector has the capacity to recover foreign-currency investments in a very short period of time. The World Tourism Organization WTO estimates, for instance, that a medium-class beach hotel in a developing country will earn back in one year the entire foreign exchange required to build and equip it. In the case of tourist vehicles, such as buses, this period is even shorter.
Import factors vary from 3 to 10 percent of total tourist receipts in Mexico, Venezuela, and Colombia. This jumps to about 30 percent in Jamaica and more than 40 to 50 percent in the smaller Caribbean islands.
Where the amount earned exceeds the amount paid to provide the product - a positive net balance of payments - tourism development merits strong consideration. The OAS estimates that to produce a unit of value of Jamaican currency in the tourism sector, 0.
This figure is smaller than in any other sector except mining. By contrast, the industry sector imports 73 percent of its inputs. Therefore, a unit of investment in tourism would have more than double the impact of an equivalent amount in other industries. In bigger countries, with a better capacity to provide food, transportation, and varied cultural attractions, tourism would presumably involve fewer imported inputs.
With only a few exceptions, the terms of trade for developing countries, i. But in the case of international tourism, if the index of average international tourist expenditure is taken as the expression of the price of the international product, the prices received have enjoyed greater stability than the prices of raw materials - in fact, prices have tended to increase in a stable manner, because, among other reasons, of the demand for holidays, the growth of business travel, and the rigidity of destination supply in the short and medium term.
Whereas the prices of other products are affected by speculative or strategic offers, this is generally not the case with tourism. It is therefore a sector that tends to improve the terms of trade of an economy in the medium as well as the short term. The Conventional Tourism Industry in the Caribbean For many Caribbean islands, tourism has become the most important economic activity, especially as the major earner of foreign exchange. This is in part the result of the declining importance of sugar, bananas, bauxite, and oil as engines of growth.
But it is also a reflection of the increasing importance given to recreation and leisure as a result of rising world income levels. In addition, unlike many goods and services, tourism has no exact substitutes, meaning that the demand for holidays will grow rather than be traded for something else.
Recent Trends During the period , the Caribbean region registered a In , the Caribbean islands recorded over twelve million tourist arrivals and nearly nine million cruise-passenger visits-an increase of 2.
The main originating areas in were the United States Intra-regional tourism represented 8. The remaining Although the majority of tourists to the Caribbean are from the United States, the percentage is dwindling as other countries discover the islands. In , 58 percent of visitors to the Caribbean had been from the United States.
Between and , the proportion of European tourists had increased from 13 to 17 percent. Moreover, since Europeans generally stay longer, each arrival from Europe accounts for a higher average number of tourist days. With respect to the United States market, about 6. Over one-third The dependence of Caribbean destinations on the U.
Virgin Islands, where it represents nearly 80 percent of all U. In , 20 percent of all U. Accommodations It is estimated that the Caribbean has approximately , hotel rooms, distributed among 32 countries and territories end The Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic accounted for about 50 percent of the total and were the only destinations with more than 10, rooms.
The number of hotel rooms in the Caribbean has increased by 74 percent since During the last decade, the hotel capacity of the region increased by nearly 62, rooms about 6 percent a year. However, the growth has been concentrated geographically: 77 percent of the new rooms were constructed in the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Cuba, Guadeloupe, Aruba, and Martinique.
In some countries the total number of rooms has remained unchanged or even declined. With regard to establishment size, over 50 percent of the hotel rooms are in hotels of or more rooms.
However, this proportion varies from country to country. In Aruba, Puerto Rico, and Cuba, over 70 percent of the rooms are in establishments of more than rooms. By contrast, seven Caribbean destinations have no hotels of this size. The Dominican Republic is the largest destination in terms of room capacity, with 24, in There has been a rapid increase in capacity in Aruba and Puerto Rico in recent years.
Also, a high level of hotel construction is under way in Cuba, mostly in association with Western European consortia. Cruise Ships The number of cruise tourists has increased vigorously in the last ten years. Total cruise-passenger visits to the Caribbean have increased by nearly 40 percent since , equivalent to an annual growth rate of 8.
During , 8. In , about 53 percent of total North American berths were allocated to the Caribbean. The three largest cruise destinations in the region are The Bahamas, the U.
There are various definitions of tourism. Theobald suggested that etymologically, the word "tour" is derived from the Latin 'tornare' and the Greek 'tornos,' meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis. When the word tour and the suffixes -ism and -ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey that is a round trip, i. The Macmillan Dictionary defines tourism as the business of providing services for people who are travelling for their holiday.
Tourism in India is important for the country's economy and is growing rapidly. Over Worldwide, Delhi is ranked 28 th by the number of foreign tourist arrivals, while Mumbai is ranked 30 th , Chennai 43 rd , Agra 45 th , Jaipur 52 nd and Kolkata 90 th.
Это абсолютно исключено. - Спасибо. Джабба выдавил из себя смешок и попытался обратить все в шутку. - Если только Стратмор не придумал что-то особенное и не обошел мои фильтры. Повисла тягостная тишина.
- Сирена заглушала его слова, но Хейл старался ее перекричать. - Ты считаешь, что мы готовы взять на себя такую ответственность. Ты считаешь, что кто-нибудь готов. Это же крайне недальновидно. Ты говоришь, что наше дерьмовое правительство исходит из высших интересов людей. Но что будет, если какое-нибудь будущее правительство станет вести себя. Ведь эта технология - на вечные времена.
Беккер отчаянно давил на тормоз, но покрышки потеряли всякое сцепление с полом. Спереди на него быстро надвигалась стена. Такси все еще продолжало крутиться, и в ожидании столкновения он сжался в комок.
- Это должно быть что-то фундаментальное. Соши пожирала глазами текст. - Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик. Сьюзан взглянула на ВР. Последний защитный слой был уже почти невидим.
Тогда вы наверняка ее видели. Это совсем молоденькая девушка. Лет пятнадцати-шестнадцати.
Я сказал тебе - подними. Одуревшие от наркотиков панки за соседними столиками начали поворачивать головы в их сторону, привлеченные перепалкой. - Не советую тебе так себя вести, парень, - тихо сказал Беккер.
Дело было вовсе не и кольце, a в человеческой плоти.
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