File Name: drilling and blasting in mining .zip
Acidic precipitation - Snow and rain that have a low pH, caused by sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide gases from industrial activity released into the atmosphere. Acid mine drainage - Acidic run-off water from mine waste dumps and mill tailings ponds containing sulphide minerals.
Also refers to ground water pumped to surface from mines. Adit - An opening driven horizontally into the side of a mountain or hill for providing access to a mineral deposit. Aerial magnetometer - An instrument used to measure magnetic field strength from an airplane. Aeromagnetic survey - A geophysical survey using a magnetometer aboard, or towed behind, an aircraft. Agglomerate - A breccia composed largely or entirely of fragments of volcanic rocks. Agglomeration - A method of concentrating valuable minerals based on their adhesion properties.
Agitation - In metallurgy, the act or state of being stirred or shaken mechanically, sometimes accomplished by the introduction of compressed air. Airborne survey - A survey made from an aircraft to obtain photographs, or measure magnetic properties, radioactivity, etc. Alloy - A compound of two or more metals. Alluvium - Relatively recent deposits of sedimentary material laid down in river beds, flood plains, lakes, or at the base of mountain slopes.
Alpha ray - A positively charged particle emitted by certain radioactive materials. Alteration - Any physical or chemical change in a rock or mineral subsequent to its formation. Milder and more localized than metamorphism. Amorphous - A term applied to rocks or minerals that possess no definite crystal structure or form, such as amorphous carbon. Amortization - The gradual and systematic writing off of a balance in an account over an appropriate period. Amphibolite - A gneiss or schist largely made up of amphibole and plagioclase minerals.
ANFO - Acronym for ammonium nitrate and fuel oil, a mixture used as a blasting agent in many mines. Annual report - The formal financial statements and report on operations issued by a corporation to its shareholders after its fiscal year-end. Anode - A rectangular plate of metal cast in a shape suitable for refining by the electrolytic process. Anomaly - Any departure from the norm which may indicate the presence of mineralization in the underlying bedrock. Anthracite - A hard, black coal containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter.
Anticline - An arch or fold in layers of rock shaped like the crest of a wave. Apex - The top or terminal edge of a vein on surface or its nearest point to the surface. Ash - The inorganic residue remaining after ignition of coal. Assay - A chemical test performed on a sample of ores or minerals to determine the amount of valuable metals contained. Assay foot metre, inch, centimetre - The assay value multiplied by the number of feet, metres, inches, centimetres across which the sample is taken.
Assay map - Plan view of an area indicating assay values and locations of all samples taken on the property. Assessment work - The amount of work, specified by mining law, that must be performed each year in order to retain legal control of mining claims. Authorized capital - see capital stock. Autogenous grinding - The process of grinding ore in a rotating cylinder using large pieces of the ore instead of conventional steel balls or rods.
Back - The ceiling or roof of an underground opening. Backfill - Waste material used to fill the void created by mining an orebody. Background - Minor amounts of radioactivity due not to abnormal amounts of radioactive minerals nearby, but to cosmic rays and minor residual radioactivity in the vicinity. Back sample - Rock chips collected from the roof or back of an underground opening for the purpose of determining grade. Backwardation - A situation when the cash or spot price of a metal stands at a premium over the price of the metal for delivery at a forward date.
Balance sheet - A formal statement of the financial position of a company on a particular day, normally presented to shareholders once a year. Ball mill - A steel cylinder filled with steel balls into which crushed ore is fed.
The ball mill is rotated, causing the balls to cascade and grind the ore. Banded iron formation - A bedded deposit of iron minerals. Basalt - An extrusive volcanic rock composed primarily of plagioclase, pyroxene and some olivine.
Basal till - Unsorted glacial debris at the base of the soil column where it comes into contact with the bedrock below. Basement rocks - The underlying or older rock mass. Often refers to rocks of Precambrian age which may be covered by younger rocks.
Base camp - Centre of operations from which exploration activity is conducted. Base metal - Any non-precious metal eg.
Basic rocks - Igneous rocks that are relatively low in silica and composed mostly of dark-colored minerals. Batholith - A large mass of igneous rock extending to great depth with its upper portion dome-like in shape. Similar, smaller masses of igneous rocks are known as bosses or plugs.
Bauxite - A rock made up of hydrous aluminum oxides; the most common aluminum ore. Bear market - Term used to describe market conditions when share prices are declining. Bedding - The arrangement of sedimentary rocks in layers. Beneficiate - To concentrate or enrich; often applied to the preparation of iron ore for smelting. Bentonite - A clay with great ability to absorb water and which swells accordingly.
Bessemer - An iron ore with a very low phosphorus content. Bio-leaching - A process for recovering metals from low-grade ores by dissolving them in solution, the dissolution being aided by bacterial action.
Biotite - A platy magnesium-iron mica, common in igneous rocks. Bit - The cutting end of a drill frequently made of an extremely hard material such as industrial diamonds or tungsten carbide. Blackjack - A miner's term for sphalerite zinc sulphide. Black smoker - Volcanic vent found in areas of active ocean floor spreading, through which sulphide-laden fluids escape.
Blaster - A mine employee responsible for loading, priming and detonating blastholes. Blast furnace - A reaction vessel in which mixed charges of oxide ores, fluxes and fuels are blown with a continuous blast of hot air and oxygen-enriched air for the chemical reduction of metals to their metallic state.
Blasthole - A drill hole in a mine that is filled with explosives in order to blast loose a quantity of rock. Block caving - An inexpensive method of mining in which large blocks of ore are undercut, causing the ore to break or cave under its own weight. Board lot - One hundred shares.
Bond - An agreement to pay a certain amount of interest over a given period of time. Boom - A telescoping, hydraulically powered steel arm on which drifters, manbaskets and hydraulic hammers are mounted. Box hole - A short raise or opening driven above a drift for the purpose of drawing ore from a stope, or to permit access. Break - Loosely used to describe a large-scale regional shear zone or structural fault. Breast - A working face in a mine, usually restricted to a stope. Breccia - A rock in which angular fragments are surrounded by a mass of fine-grained minerals.
Broken reserves - The ore in a mine which has been broken by blasting but which has not yet been transported to surface. Brunton compass - A pocket compass equipped with sights and a reflector, used for sighting lines, measuring dip and carrying out preliminary surveys. Bulk mining - Any large-scale, mechanized method of mining involving many thousands of tonnes of ore being brought to surface per day.
Bulk sample - A large sample of mineralized rock, frequently hundreds of tonnes, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. Used to determine metallurgical characteristics. Bullion - Metal formed into bars or ingots. Bull market - Term used to describe financial market conditions when share prices are going up.
Bull quartz - A prospector's term for white, coarse-grained, barren quartz. Byproduct - A secondary metal or mineral product recovered in the milling process.
Cable bolt - A steel cable, capable of withstanding tens of tonnes, cemented into a drillhole to lend support in blocky ground. Cage - The conveyance used to transport men and equipment between the surface and the mine levels. Calcine - Name given to concentrate that is ready for smelting i. Call - An option to buy shares at a specified price. The opposite of a "put". Capitalization - A financial term used to describe the value financial markets put on a company. Determined by multiplying the number of outstanding shares of a company by the current stock price.
Capital stock - The total ownership of a limited liability company divided among a specified number of shares. Captive stope - A stope that is accessible only through a manway. Carbon-in-pulp - A method of recovering gold and silver from pregnant cyanide solutions by adsorbing the precious metals to granules of activated carbon, which are typically ground up coconut shells.
Cash flow - The net of the inflow and outflow of cash during an accounting period. Does not account for depreciation or bookkeeping write-offs which do not involve an actual cash outlay. Cathode - A rectangular plate of metal, produced by electrolytic refining, which is melted into commercial shapes such as wirebars, billets, ingots, etc. Cesium magnetometer - An geophysical instrument which measures magnetic field strength in terms of vertical gradient and total field.
Chalcocite - A sulphide mineral of copper common in the zone of secondary enrichment. Chalcopyrite - A sulphide mineral of copper and iron; the most important ore mineral of copper.
Change house - The mine building where workers change into work clothes; also known as the "dry". Channel sample - A sample composed of pieces of vein or mineral deposit that have been cut out of a small trench or channel, usually about 10 cm wide and 2 cm deep.
Sustainability in Coal and Mineral Mining Operations is need-of-the-hour. Early work focused mainly on mining metals and commodities other than coal and energy fuels. Because sustainability, however, is an important consideration for all human endeavors now, the coal industry has become active in sustainability efforts. A number of global coal mining companies have embraced sustainability as a key aspect of corporate philosophy. Continued production of minerals and fossil energy fuels may not fit into commonly understood definitions of sustainability. Significant progress can also be made through the inclusion of sustainability concepts in the original design of the operation, as well as in ongoing operations. Innovative engineering, mining and reclamation operations can be optimized through consideration of environmental and economic sustainability goals, side-by-side with traditional technical mining engineering considerations.
Category: Blasting View all files in this category 94 Kb Glossary of Blasting Terms page reference document on blasting terms and their definitions. This resulted in the injury of a mine employee and substantial damage to the vehicle. The purpose of drilling into rock is to provide a "blasthole" into which explosives can be loaded. Repository Home. Online Testing. Rescue Contests. Archived Exams.
Explosives Energy Release and Rock Breakage: Mechanism of rock breakage while release of Explosives energy upon detonation and other relevant points are discussed below:. Velocity of detonation VOD of explosive is function of Heat of reaction of an explosive, density and confinement. The detonation of explosives in cylindrical columns and in unconfined conditions leads to lateral expansion between the shock and C-J planes resulting in a shorter reaction zone and loss of energy. Thus, it is common to encounter a much lower VOD in unconfined situations than in confined ones. Rock breakage by Detonation and Interaction of explosive energy with rock — There are three sources of generation of fragments in mines: a Fragments formed by new fractures created by detonating explosive charge, b In-situ blocks that have simply been liberated from the rock mass without further breakage and c Fragments formed by extending the in-situ fractures in combination with new fractures. Rock fragmentation by blasting is achieved by dynamic loading introduced into the rock mass.
Acidic precipitation - Snow and rain that have a low pH, caused by sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide gases from industrial activity released into the atmosphere. Acid mine drainage - Acidic run-off water from mine waste dumps and mill tailings ponds containing sulphide minerals. Also refers to ground water pumped to surface from mines. Adit - An opening driven horizontally into the side of a mountain or hill for providing access to a mineral deposit. Aerial magnetometer - An instrument used to measure magnetic field strength from an airplane.
Blasting , process of reducing a solid body, such as rock, to fragments by using an explosive. Conventional blasting operations include 1 drilling holes, 2 placing a charge and detonator in each hole, 3 detonating the charge, and 4 clearing away the broken material. Upon detonation, the chemical energy in the explosive is liberated, and the compact explosive becomes transformed into a glowing gas with an enormous pressure. In a densely packed hole this pressure can exceed , atmospheres. The high pressure shatters the area adjacent to the drill hole and exposes the rock beyond to very high stresses and strains that cause cracks to form.
Adoko, Amoussou C. Unplanned dilution can pose huge burden on the profitability of underground mining operations, in particular when mining narrow veins. This paper aims at estimating quantitatively unplanned dilution due to the open stope walls overbreak and slough in longhole blasting mining environment.
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation. It is practiced most often in mining , quarrying and civil engineering such as dam , tunnel or road construction. The result of rock blasting is often known as a rock cut. Drilling and blasting currently utilizes many different varieties of explosives with different compositions and performance properties. Higher velocity explosives are used for relatively hard rock in order to shatter and break the rock, while low velocity explosives are used in soft rocks to generate more gas pressure and a greater heaving effect. For instance, an early 20th-century blasting manual compared the effects of black powder to that of a wedge, and dynamite to that of a hammer.
Despite this fact, ASM is generally associated with the negative aspects of its environ mental impact, and operational research is generally neglected. This article empha sizes the peculiarity of the drilling and blasting systems of small underground mines in selected South American Countries. Such Countries, while having large mineral deposits and well recognized large-scale mining activities, at the same time still pres ent on their territory ASM activities that are archaic, highly inefficient and dangerous for the safety of its operators. This article documents drilling and blasting activities from gold mining in Ecuador and Chile. First, described are the outdated and often non-rational techniques employed by miners, to provide a general framework of the current methods. Then, shown is what can be improved and how the current methods can be modified.
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Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation. It is practiced most often in mining , quarrying and civil engineering such as dam , tunnel or road construction. The result of rock blasting is often known as a rock cut. Drilling and blasting currently utilizes many different varieties of explosives with different compositions and performance properties. Higher velocity explosives are used for relatively hard rock in order to shatter and break the rock, while low velocity explosives are used in soft rocks to generate more gas pressure and a greater heaving effect.
May 17, The study includes live case studies in the form of testimonies of the people who Case of goa and mining companies avoiding drilling and blasting blasting crusher uae soda blasting equipment price mining quarry manager drilling blasting engineer stone in saudi arabia crushed recycled glass for blasting for sale,ch abrasive blasting abrasive blasting is the
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