File Name: history of www and internet .zip
The history of the Internet has its origin in the efforts to build and interconnect computer networks that arose from research and development in the United States and involved international collaboration, particularly with researchers in the United Kingdom and France. Computer science was an emerging discipline in the late s that began to consider time-sharing between computer users, and later, the possibility of achieving this over wide area networks.
Independently, Paul Baran proposed a distributed network based on data in message blocks in the early s and Donald Davies conceived of packet switching in at the National Physical Laboratory NPL and proposed building a national commercial data network in the UK.
The network was built by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman. ARPA projects and international working groups led to the development of protocols for internetworking , in which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks, which produced various standards.
Thus creating network access to these supercomputer sites for research and academic organizations in the United States. Research at CERN in Switzerland by British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee in —90 resulted in the World Wide Web , linking hypertext documents into an information system, accessible from any node on the network.
However, the future of the global network may be shaped by regional differences. The concept of data communication — transmitting data between two different places through an electromagnetic medium such as radio or an electric wire — pre-dates the introduction of the first computers. Such communication systems were typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices. Semaphore lines , telegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication.
The telegraph in the late 19th century was the first fully digital communication system. Fundamental theoretical work on information theory was developed by Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley in the s. Information theory, as enunciated by Claude Shannon , in the s, provided a firm theoretical underpinning to understand the trade-offs between signal-to-noise ratio , bandwidth , and error-free transmission in the presence of noise , in telecommunications technology. This was one of the three key developments, along with advances in transistor technology specifically MOS transistors and laser technology, that made possible the rapid growth of telecommunication bandwidth over the next half-century.
Early computers in the s had a central processing unit and user terminals. As the technology evolved in the s, new systems were devised to allow communication over longer distances for terminals or with higher speed for interconnection of local devices that were necessary for the mainframe computer model. These technologies made it possible to exchange data such as files between remote computers. However, the point-to-point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems; a physical link was necessary.
The technology was also considered vulnerable for strategic and military use because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of a broken link.
The earliest computers were connected directly to terminals used by an individual user. Christopher Strachey , who became Oxford University's first Professor of Computation, filed a patent application for time-sharing in February Licklider of M. A network of such centers, connected to one another by wide-band communication lines [ Licklider later returned to lead the IPTO in for two years.
The issue of connecting separate physical networks to form one logical network was the first of many problems. Early networks used message switched systems that required rigid routing structures prone to single point of failure. Packet switching is a rapid store and forward networking design that divides messages up into arbitrary packets, with routing decisions made per-packet. It provides better bandwidth utilization and response times than the traditional circuit-switching technology used for telephony, particularly on resource-limited interconnection links.
Following discussions with J. Licklider in , Donald Davies became interested in data communications for computer networks. The following year, he described the use of an "Interface computer" to act as a router. By he had begun building the Mark I packet-switched network to meet the needs of the multidisciplinary laboratory and prove the technology under operational conditions.
The NPL team carried out simulation work on packet networks, including datagram networks, and research into internetworking. He intended to realize Licklider 's ideas of an interconnected networking system. For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So if I was talking online with someone at S. I said, oh man, it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing.
That idea is the ARPAnet. Roberts and Thomas Merrill had been researching computer time-sharing over wide area networks. Yet a revolution had begun" The Merit Network  was formed in as the Michigan Educational Research Information Triad to explore computer networking between three of Michigan's public universities as a means to help the state's educational and economic development.
Over the next several years in addition to host to host interactive connections the network was enhanced to support terminal to host connections, host to host batch connections remote job submission, remote printing, batch file transfer , interactive file transfer, gateways to the Tymnet and Telenet public data networks , X. First demonstrated in , it was the first network to make the hosts responsible for reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms.
In , X. By the s it provided a worldwide networking infrastructure. The first public dial-in networks used asynchronous TTY terminal protocols to reach a concentrator operated in the public network.
Some networks, such as Telenet and CompuServe , used X. In , CompuServe became the first service to offer electronic mail capabilities and technical support to personal computer users. The company broke new ground again in as the first to offer real-time chat with its CB Simulator. Other major dial-in networks were America Online AOL and Prodigy that also provided communications, content, and entertainment features.
In s, the massive computer network project called OGAS was proposed but failed to be implemented. Following public release of the software in , the mesh of UUCP hosts forwarding on the Usenet news rapidly expanded. UUCP networks spread quickly due to the lower costs involved, ability to use existing leased lines, X. All connects were local. By the number of UUCP hosts had grown to , nearly doubling to in Sublink Network , operating since and officially founded in Italy in , based its interconnectivity upon UUCP to redistribute mail and news groups messages throughout its Italian nodes about at the time owned both by private individuals and small companies.
Sublink Network represented possibly one of the first examples of the Internet technology becoming progress through popular diffusion. With so many different network methods, something was needed to unify them. This software was monolithic in design using two simplex communication channels for each user session.
With the role of the network reduced to a core of functionality, it became possible to exchange traffic with other networks independently from their detailed characteristics, thereby solving the fundamental problems of internetworking.
DARPA agreed to fund development of prototype software. The software was redesigned as a modular protocol stack, using full-duplex channels. IPv4 uses bit addresses which limits the address space to 2 32 addresses, i. The shift to IPv6 is expected to take many years, decades, or perhaps longer, to complete, since there were four billion machines with IPv4 when the shift began.
Eventually, in July , the network had been turned over to the Defense Communications Agency , also part of the Department of Defense. In , the U. The networks based on the ARPANET were government funded and therefore restricted to noncommercial uses such as research; unrelated commercial use was strictly forbidden. This initially restricted connections to military sites and universities. During the s, the connections expanded to more educational institutions, and even to a growing number of companies such as Digital Equipment Corporation and Hewlett-Packard , which were participating in research projects or providing services to those who were.
Several other branches of the U. NSI was established to provide a totally integrated communications infrastructure to the NASA scientific community for the advancement of earth, space and life sciences.
As a high-speed, multiprotocol, international network, NSI provided connectivity to over 20, scientists across all seven continents. The NSFNET also provided support for the creation of regional research and education networks in the United States, and for the connection of university and college campus networks to the regional networks.
In general, an internet was a collection of networks linked by a common protocol. Many sites unable to link directly to the Internet created simple gateways for the transfer of electronic mail, the most important application of the time. Finally, routing technologies were developed for the Internet to remove the remaining centralized routing aspects. In , Classless Inter-Domain Routing CIDR was introduced to support better conservation of address space which allowed use of route aggregation to decrease the size of routing tables.
At the same time as the rise of internetworking in Europe, ad hoc networking to ARPA and in-between Australian universities formed, based on various technologies such as X. These were limited in their connection to the global networks, due to the cost of making individual international UUCP dial-up or X. In , Australian universities joined the push towards using IP protocols to unify their networking infrastructures.
New Zealand's first international Internet connection was established the same year. Nonetheless, for a period in the late s and early s, engineers, organizations and nations were polarized over the issue of which standard , the OSI model or the Internet protocol suite would result in the best and most robust computer networks.
While developed countries with technological infrastructures were joining the Internet, developing countries began to experience a digital divide separating them from the Internet. On an essentially continental basis, they are building organizations for Internet resource administration and sharing operational experience, as more and more transmission facilities go into place.
At the beginning of the s, African countries relied upon X. Guinea , Mozambique, Madagascar and Rwanda gained satellite earth stations in , followed by Ivory Coast and Benin in Africa is building an Internet infrastructure. As do the other Internet regions, there is an operational forum, the Internet Community of Operational Networking Specialists. There are many programs to provide high-performance transmission plant, and the western and southern coasts have undersea optical cable.
High-speed cables join North Africa and the Horn of Africa to intercontinental cable systems. Internet in However, China went on to implement its own digital divide by implementing a country-wide content filter.
Initially, as with its predecessor networks, the system that would evolve into the Internet was primarily for government and government body use. However, interest in commercial use of the Internet quickly became a commonly debated topic.
Although commercial use was forbidden, the exact definition of commercial use was unclear and subjective. Some UUCP links still remained connecting to these networks however, as administrators cast a blind eye to their operation. As a result, during the late s, the first Internet service provider ISP companies were formed. By , ARPANET's goals had been fulfilled and new networking technologies exceeded the original scope and the project came to a close.
The World Wide Web is not synonymous with the Internet, which pre-dated the Web in some form by over two decades and upon which technologies the Web is built. The Web began to enter everyday use in , when websites for general use started to become available. In addition to text , web pages may contain references to images , video , audio , and software components which are either displayed or internally executed in the user's web browser to render pages or streams of multimedia content. Multiple web resources with a common theme and usually a common domain name , make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a web server , which is a program that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer.
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– ARPANET standardizes its use of TCP/IP. (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) to send data packets across the network. • – Domain.
The history of the Internet has its origin in the efforts to build and interconnect computer networks that arose from research and development in the United States and involved international collaboration, particularly with researchers in the United Kingdom and France. Computer science was an emerging discipline in the late s that began to consider time-sharing between computer users, and later, the possibility of achieving this over wide area networks. Independently, Paul Baran proposed a distributed network based on data in message blocks in the early s and Donald Davies conceived of packet switching in at the National Physical Laboratory NPL and proposed building a national commercial data network in the UK.
You are reading in A short history of the internet. The origins of the internet are rooted in the USA of the s. Both superpowers were in possession of deadly nuclear weapons, and people lived in fear of long-range surprise attacks. The US realised it needed a communications system that could not be affected by a Soviet nuclear attack. At this time, computers were large, expensive machines exclusively used by military scientists and university staff.
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