File Name: duress and undue influence .zip
Contract Law pp Cite as. The law of contract has always placed limits upon the exercise of economic power by contracting parties see Reiter,
Duress and undue influence essentially means that a person or party has been forced into a contract. The contract cannot be considered to be a valid agreement under these circumstances. Under common law, there are two doctrines to consider: duress and undue influence.
In jurisprudence , undue influence is an equitable doctrine that involves one person taking advantage of a position of power over another person. This inequity in power between the parties can vitiate one party's consent as they are unable to freely exercise their independent will. Where it is established that a plaintiff was induced to enter into a contract or transaction by the undue influence of the defendant, the contract may be rendered voidable.
If undue influence is proved in a contract, the innocent party is entitled to set aside the contract against the defendant, and the remedy is rescission. In Australia, the leading case on undue influence is Johnson v Buttress ,  in which the approach to 'actual' and 'presumed' undue influence was at issue.
In the first subgroup, the relationship falls in a class of relationships that as a matter of law will raise a presumption of undue influence. Such classes include:. In such cases, the burden of proof lies on the first of said parties e. This requires the dominant party to establish that the second party "knew and understood what he or she was doing, and that he or she was acting independently of the influence of the dominant party".
The second subgroup covers relationships that do not fall into the first subgroup, but on the facts of case, there was an relationship between the parties that led to undue influence.
The test is one of whether "one party occupies or assumes towards another a position naturally involving an ascendancy or influence over that other, or a dependence or trust on his part".
An innocent party may also seek to have a contract set aside for actual undue influence, where there is no presumption of undue influence, but there is evidence that the power was unbalanced at the time of the signing of the contract. There was evidential proof that there was a long history of brutal domestic violence inflicted by the husband on the wife, whereby he ended up murdering her.
There was a presumption that the wife only transferred her interest to the husband because of undue influence and evidence proved that the transfer resulted from actual undue influence. It was because of the history of violence that resulted in the judge setting aside the transfer. A contrasting case is Lee v Chai , in which Mr Lee purchased an apartment and a Porsche for Ms Chai, with whom he was having an affair. It was held that Mr Lee and Ms Chai were not in a relationship of influence that would attract the operation of the equitable doctrine.
Mr Lee was a well-educated man with substantial experience in business affairs, while Ms Chai had a 'less forceful personality' and less business experience. This case highlights an approach taken in Australia, which is to focus on the impaired consent of the plaintiff. In Garcia v National Australia Bank ,  the High Court of Australia approved the principle in Yerkey v Jones ,  by distinguishing between cases of actual undue influence and situations where the transaction is set aside because the guarantor does not understand the nature of the transaction.
That is, someone in possession of full mental capacity is not likely to be swayed by undue influence, manipulation, or coercion. In litigation most jurisdictions place the burden of proving undue influence on the party challenging the will.
Undue influence can be very difficult to prove, and the mere appearance of undue influence is inadequate to challenge the validity of a will. In probate law , undue influence is generally defined as a testator 's loss of free agency regarding property disposition through contemporaneous psychological domination by an advisor, resulting in an excessive benefit to the advisor.
It is important to note that "undue influence" is an issue only when the advisor is benefiting, not when advisor is getting a benefit for someone else;  [ failed verification ] in that case it would be considered fraud. In Germany, to avoid undue influence it is illegal for a testator who is or has been a resident of a nursing home to bequeath any property to any employee of the nursing home. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues.
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May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Undue influence in English law. Modern Law Review. Core's Administrators , S. Grossman Law Firm. Going Legal Limited. Accessed May 15, Scalise Jr. Paterson, J. Thomson Reuters Professional Australia Limited. Categories : Contract law Wills and trusts Equitable defenses Legal doctrines and principles Influence social and political. Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from July All articles needing additional references Articles with limited geographic scope from May Articles with multiple maintenance issues All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from June Namespaces Article Talk.
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The reasoning behind duress and undue influence is to protect the freedom of contracts, which has been achieved by the courts invalidating a contract that has been formed by any coercion. A person who enters into a contract is often under some sort of pressure to do so. Duress concerns consent and whether it has been vitiated thus leading to the contract becoming voidable. If a contract is voidable you are only entitled to rescission. Dimskal Shipping Co SA v ITWF: The threat to breach a contract must be a significant cause to induce the victim of duress to enter into a new contract Illustrates the causative nature — there must be a link. Serious threat or serious harm to another person The threat must be a reason for entering into the contract There is little guidance regarding how serious the threat must be.
Both Coercion and undue influence create flaw in consent and make contract voidable at the option of the aggrieved party. Presumed undue influence age, illness or distress. Because coercion is not a benign accusation, the concept is in need of clarification and should be used carefully. The primary difference between coercion and undue influence is that coercion involves physical and psychological pressure while undue influence involves mental pressure. Under Section 14 the Indian Contract Act, states that a consent is free when it is not caused by coercion. Coercion involves doing or threatening to do an illegal act. The difference between duress and undue influence describes a situation where one party is forced through coercion of violence, while another is forced through the unethical actions of another party into a contract or agreement.
N. Duress & Undue imstea.org Grace Kala. Look at the case of Friederberg-Seeley v. Klass Traditionally, the threat had to be unlawful to constitute duress.
When a person is forced to do something against his or her will, that person is said to have been the victim of duress A threat of improper action to induce a person to make a contract. There are two types of duress: physical duress and duress by improper threat. A contract induced by physical violence is void. If a person is forced into entering a contract on threat of physical bodily harm, he or she is the victim of physical duress The threat of physical harm that wrongfully induces a party to contract.
The difference between duress and undue influence describes a situation where one party is forced through coercion of violence, while another is forced through the unethical actions of another party into a contract or agreement. All of these factors come into play with undue influence. Contract law is primarily concerned with the enforcement of promises and is regulated largely by the common law.
Человек улыбнулся: охота становилась интересной. Беккер здесь… Я чувствую, что. Он двигался методично, обходя один ряд за другим. Наверху лениво раскачивалась курильница, описывая широкую дугу. Прекрасное место для смерти, - подумал Халохот. - Надеюсь, удача не оставит. Беккер опустился на колени на холодный каменный пол и низко наклонил голову.
Нет, решила .
- Сегодня здесь все идет кувырком. В чем. - Пусти меня, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь говорить как можно спокойнее. Внезапно ее охватило ощущение опасности.
Мелкая любезность, которую он оказал Стратмору, забрав личные вещи Танкадо, вылилась в поиски таинственного кольца, как в известной игре, где нужно находить спрятанные предметы. Дэвид только что позвонил Стратмору и рассказал о немецком туристе. Новость не обрадовала коммандера. Выслушав подробности, он долго молчал. Дэвид, - сказал наконец Стратмор мрачным голосом, - обнаружение этого кольца - вопрос национальной безопасности.
Однажды в компьютере случился сбой, причину которого никто не мог установить. После многочасовых поисков ее обнаружил младший лаборант. То была моль, севшая на одну из плат, в результате чего произошло короткое замыкание.
Взгляните. Офицер подошел к столу. Кожа на левой руке загорелая, если не считать узкой светлой полоски на мизинце. Беккер показал лейтенанту эту полоску. - Смотрите, полоска осталась незагорелой.
Канадский француз. - Пожалуйста, уделите мне одну минуту. Беккер отлично говорил по-французски, тем не менее обратился к этому человеку на языке, который тот, как он надеялся, должен был знать хуже. Убедить абсолютно незнакомого человека отдать вам золотое кольцо скорее всего будет весьма непросто, поэтому Беккер хотел заручиться хотя бы одним преимуществом. Пока старик собирался с мыслями, Беккер не произнес ни слова.
Двадцать минут? - переспросил Беккер.
Он знал: все уверены, что он ушел. В шуме, доносившемся из-под пола шифровалки, в его голове звучал девиз лаборатории систем безопасности: Действуй, объясняться будешь. В мире высоких ставок, в котором от компьютерной безопасности зависело слишком многое, минуты зачастую означали спасение системы или ее гибель. Трудно было найти время для предварительного обоснования защитных мер. Сотрудникам службы безопасности платили за их техническое мастерство… а также за чутье.
Поднял посверкивающую полуавтоматическую беретту и нацелил ее на дверь, а потом опустил себе на колени. - Сьюзан, - сказал он торжественно. - Здесь мы в безопасности.
Не имеет значения.
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