File Name: causes and symptoms of malaria .zip
Back to Malaria. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasite. The parasite can be spread to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
Infection with malaria parasites may result in a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death. Malaria disease can be categorized as uncomplicated or severe complicated. In general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly.
All the clinical symptoms associated with malaria are caused by the asexual erythrocytic or blood stage parasites. When the parasite develops in the erythrocyte, numerous known and unknown waste substances such as hemozoin pigment and other toxic factors accumulate in the infected red blood cell. These are dumped into the bloodstream when the infected cells lyse and release invasive merozoites. The hemozoin and other toxic factors such as glucose phosphate isomerase GPI stimulate macrophages and other cells to produce cytokines and other soluble factors which act to produce fever and rigors and probably influence other severe pathophysiology associated with malaria.
Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes, particularly those with mature trophozoites, adhere to the vascular endothelium of venular blood vessel walls and do not freely circulate in the blood.
When this sequestration of infected erythrocytes occurs in the vessels of the brain it is believed to be a factor in causing the severe disease syndrome known as cerebral malaria, which is associated with high mortality. The incubation period in most cases varies from 7 to 30 days. The shorter periods are observed most frequently with P. Antimalarial drugs taken for prophylaxis by travelers can delay the appearance of malaria symptoms by weeks or months, long after the traveler has left the malaria-endemic area.
This can happen particularly with P. Such long delays between exposure and development of symptoms can result in misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis because of reduced clinical suspicion by the health-care provider. Returned travelers should always remind their health-care providers of any travel in areas where malaria occurs during the past 12 months.
Top of Page. In countries where cases of malaria are infrequent, these symptoms may be attributed to influenza, a cold, or other common infections, especially if malaria is not suspected. Physical findings may include the following:. Diagnosis of malaria depends on the demonstration of parasites in the blood, usually by microscopy. Additional laboratory findings may include mild anemia, mild decrease in blood platelets thrombocytopenia , elevation of bilirubin, and elevation of aminotransferases.
The manifestations of severe malaria include the following:. Severe malaria is a medical emergency and should be treated urgently and aggressively. Relapses occur because P. Treatment to reduce the chance of such relapses is available and should follow treatment of the first attack.
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Physical findings may include the following: Elevated temperatures Perspiration Weakness Enlarged spleen Mild jaundice Enlargement of the liver Increased respiratory rate Diagnosis of malaria depends on the demonstration of parasites in the blood, usually by microscopy. Hypoglycemia may also occur in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria, or after treatment with quinine. Neurologic defects may occasionally persist following cerebral malaria, especially in children. Such defects include trouble with movements ataxia , palsies, speech difficulties, deafness, and blindness.
Recurrent infections with P. This occurs especially in young children in tropical Africa with frequent infections that are inadequately treated. Malaria during pregnancy especially P. On rare occasions, P.
Nephrotic syndrome a chronic, severe kidney disease can result from chronic or repeated infections with P. The disease is marked by a very enlarged spleen and liver, abnormal immunologic findings, anemia, and a susceptibility to other infections such as skin or respiratory infections.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. James M. Crutcher and Stephen L. Plasmodia are protozoa. Only the species Plasmodium falciparum , P vivax , P malariae, and P ovale are usually infectious for humans.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group. The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water. The disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broad band around the equator. The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 8—25 days following infection,  but may occur later in those who have taken antimalarial medications as prevention. The classic symptom of malaria is paroxysm —a cyclical occurrence of sudden coldness followed by shivering and then fever and sweating, occurring every two days tertian fever in P. Severe malaria is usually caused by P.
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that gets passed into the bloodstream of humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Only the Anopheles species of mosquito can transmit malaria, and mosquitoes pick up the parasite from biting a person already infected with the illness. People with malaria typically get very sick and experience a high fever, teeth-rattling chills and muscle aches.
Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne blood disease. The Anopheles mosquito transmits it to humans. The parasites in mosquitos that spread malaria belong to the Plasmodium genus. Over types of Plasmodium parasite can infect a variety of species.
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In humans, malaria parasites grow and multiply first in the liver cells and then exponentially in the red blood cells. It is the blood stage of the parasite lifecycle that causes the symptoms of malaria in humans. Symptoms generally occur days after the initial mosquito bite.
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