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Anatomy And Physiology Of Human Ear Pdf

anatomy and physiology of human ear pdf

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Published: 21.12.2020

The ear is the organ of both hearing and equilibrium. Hearing is the transduction of sound waves into a neural signal that relies on the structures of the ear. The outwardly visible structure that is often referred to as the ear is more correctly referred to as the outer ear external ear , or the auricle.

Ear anatomy

The inner ear internal ear , auris interna is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear. In vertebrates, the inner ear is mainly responsible for sound detection and balance. The inner ear is found in all vertebrates, with substantial variations in form and function. The inner ear is innervated by the eighth cranial nerve in all vertebrates. The bony labyrinth , or osseous labyrinth, is the network of passages with bony walls lined with periosteum.

The following article is written to provide a general understanding of the structures within the auditory system and how they function. The auditory system is comprised of three components; the outer, middle, and inner ear, all of which work together to transfer sounds from the environment to the brain. Pinna The pinna or auricle is a concave cartilaginous structure, which collects and directs sound waves traveling in air into the ear canal or external auditory meatus. Ear Canal The ear canal or external auditory meatus is approximately 1. The inner two-thirds of the ear canal is imbedded in the temporal bone. The outer one-third of the canal is cartilage. Although the shape of each ear canal varies, in general the canal forms an elongated "s" shape curve.

Human ear , organ of hearing and equilibrium that detects and analyzes sound by transduction or the conversion of sound waves into electrochemical impulses and maintains the sense of balance equilibrium. The human ear, like that of other mammals , contains sense organs that serve two quite different functions: that of hearing and that of postural equilibrium and coordination of head and eye movements. Anatomically, the ear has three distinguishable parts: the outer, middle, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the visible portion called the auricle , or pinna, which projects from the side of the head, and the short external auditory canal , the inner end of which is closed by the tympanic membrane , commonly called the eardrum. The function of the outer ear is to collect sound waves and guide them to the tympanic membrane.

Ear anatomy

The ear is the sense organ that enables us to hear. Hearing can be defined as the perception of sound energy via the brain and central nervous system. Hearing consists of two components: identification of sounds what the sound is and localisation of those sounds where the sounds are coming from. The ear is divided into three main parts — the outer ear , the middle ear , and the inner ear. The inner ear is filled with fluid. The inner ear also contains the receptors for sound which convert fluid motion into electrical signals known as action potentials that are sent to the brain to enable sound perception. The airborne sound waves must therefore be channelled toward and transferred into the inner ear for hearing to occur.

anatomy and physiology of human ear pdf

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The ears are organs that provide two main functions — hearing and balance — that depend on specialized receptors called hair cells. Sound waves enter through the outer ear, move into the middle ear, and finally reach the inner ear and its intricate network of nerves, bones, canals, and cells. There are three bones located in the middle ear: the incus, the malleus and the stapes.

External auditory canal or tube. This is the tube that connects the outer ear to the inside or middle ear. Tympanic membrane eardrum.

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Anatomy and physiology of the ear

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In some animals they function to direct the pinna towards the direction of a sound source, in humans they are mostly redundant. (b) The external auditory meatus.


 - Он прикинул в уме, сколько в этой пачке в пересчете на доллары.  - Да тут несколько тысяч долларов. - Я действую по инструкции, сэр.

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 - Быть может, придется ждать, пока Дэвид не найдет копию Танкадо. Стратмор посмотрел на нее неодобрительно. - Если Дэвид не добьется успеха, а ключ Танкадо попадет в чьи-то руки… Коммандеру не нужно было договаривать. Сьюзан и так его поняла.

5 Comments

  1. Mahoma M.

    25.12.2020 at 11:29
    Reply

    The head in humans is large in comparison to the size of the pinna so the role of the pinna is less than in some other mammals. Nonetheless, its crinkled shape.

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    26.12.2020 at 09:04
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  3. Amaury C.

    27.12.2020 at 05:03
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    THE EAR: PRACTICAL. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY: J.W. Loock, Dept. of ORL. Faculty of Health Sciences. US/TBH. Page.

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  5. Alano C.

    28.12.2020 at 04:55
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    Help maintain ossicles in proper position. • Protect inner ear from excessive sound levels. • This protective reflex termed "acoustic reflex".

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