File Name: discuss prenatal factors which affect child development and learning .zip
In considering physical development, the specific needs for children vary by age. Strategies for supporting each age group will be outlined in Lesson Three. Understanding that infants and toddlers experience rapid physical growth while older children refine skills already attained will make it easier to meet the individual needs of children and youth in group care. This lesson provides a snapshot of development by age group. A more detailed understanding can be achieved by reading Lesson Two for each age track.
While there is a natural progression when it comes to physical development, the pace of that progression can be influenced both positively and negatively by environmental and experiential factors. These factors include:. Individual differences exist when it comes to the precise age at which children meet milestones; each child is unique.
Think of milestones as guidelines to help staff understand and identify typical patterns of development and to know when and what to look for as children mature. Infants are dependent on adults to support their emerging physical abilities in a safe and nurturing environment.
From the beginning, infants want to explore their world by making connections. While each infant has his or her own schedule for development, they are often eager to move their mouths, eyes and bodies toward people and objects that comfort and interest them. Toddlers are on the move. They are determined to master movement, balance and fine-motor small-muscle and gross-motor large-muscle skills. With practice, they get stronger and their abilities become increasingly more advanced.
Toddlers need time for these new experiences. It is essential for toddlers to explore the world around them with a trusting, caring adult who balances the need for exploration with safety. Preschoolers spend a great deal of time running, climbing, jumping, and chasing each other; they scribble, paint, build, pour, cut with scissors, put puzzles together, and string beads. They are constantly on the move and their skills improve significantly from the time that they were toddlers.
They become increasingly more independent. School-agers mature while refining their gross- and fine-motor skills. They gain more control of their bodies and are better able to coordinate and balance, as seen in activities such as jumping rope, organized sports, obstacle courses, and yoga. School-agers become more proficient in their fine-motor skills and are able to use utensils, tie their shoelaces, use clasps and buttons, and color in lines. They gradually become less egocentric and are better able to think about and understand things from different viewpoints.
School-age children will experience normal body changes as puberty begins. Sometimes these changes can be drastic, seeming to happen overnight, while other changes happen gradually over months or years. The changes that accompany the onset of puberty can often be confusing and even scary for school-age children. Here are a few considerations:.
To create an inclusive environment that supports all learners, you must first model an inclusive attitude. Your facility is compliant with the Rehabilitation Act Section , so at a minimum children and families with a variety of physical needs can access your building. You must go beyond access, however. Make sure all children and families feel welcome and involved. Consider the experiences offered in your program, and help staff members brainstorm possible modifications and adaptations.
You and your staff play a critical role in supporting all ages and stages of physical development. Though the progression of skill development is predictable, the pace at which each child reaches milestones is unique. Lesson Three will focus on strategies for meeting the physical development needs of the children and youth your program serves.
There are many resources listed in the reference section that could be useful to both staff and families in deepening their understanding of what to expect in terms of physical development. Take some time to explore those resources and include relevant items in both your staff and family resource areas.
Observation is one of the best ways to see the range of development across the ages. Carve out some time each day for a week to observe the different age groups in your program. You will walk away with a greater understanding and appreciation for the amazing process of development. Another option is to have staff observe in an age group different from theirs, especially a younger group. This can help staff appreciate how far their children have progressed while sharpening their observations skills.
He is 24 months old and is walking up and down steps by placing both feet on each step. How do you respond? True or false? You are preparing a professional development in-service for your staff members on physical development.
The American Academy of Pediatrics. New York: Bantam Books. Caring for your school-age child. Berk, L. Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood 5th ed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Developmental Milestones.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Body and Mind. Kids Included Together. Retrieved from www. Schickeadanz, J. Understanding Children. Trawick-Smith, J. Secondary tabs Objectives :. Identify typical developmental milestones for all of the ages your program serves. Discuss factors that influence physical development.
Learn Learn. Influences on Physical Development While there is a natural progression when it comes to physical development, the pace of that progression can be influenced both positively and negatively by environmental and experiential factors. These factors include: Prenatal care : Lack of prenatal care or prenatal exposure to harmful substances, such as drugs and alcohol, can negatively influence development.
Prematurity : Children born before the 38th week of development and children having low birth weight may experience respiration difficulties, vision problems, and feeding and digestive problems. Basic needs : Failure to meet basic needs such as safety, love, housing, and food due to socioeconomic factors or neglect can negatively influence brain development, which in turn impacts physical development.
Culture : Some cultures may not value reaching developmental milestones as quickly as others; some may not value the independence that supports physical development. Temperament and learning styles : There are many types of learners.
Some children learn through physical, hands-on activities, while others may observe and keep to themselves. Developmental Milestones Individual differences exist when it comes to the precise age at which children meet milestones; each child is unique. Infants Infants are dependent on adults to support their emerging physical abilities in a safe and nurturing environment.
Here is a snapshot of physical development during infancy birth to 18 months. First movements are reflexive inborn, automatic behaviors. For example, infants startled by a loud sound or sudden body shift will extend their legs and throw their arms outward and then bring them back toward their bodies.
Young infants begin to use their fine-motor skills and senses to learn more about their world. With hands and mouth, the infant further explores the rattle. Mobile infants begin to use their large gross-motor and small fine-motor muscles to further explore their world and take action to meet their needs.
For example, mobile infants may crawl to a chair and pull themselves up or walk across the grass to a sandbox, bend down, and pick up a small shovel. Mobile infants are refining their fine-motor skills, such as using their thumbs and forefingers pincer grasp to pick up a Cheerio or to help a caregiver turn the pages of a board book.
Older mobile infants are refining their gross-motor skills, such as stacking and lining up blocks and walking while carrying objects in each hand. Toddlers Toddlers are on the move.
Here is a snapshot of physical development for toddlers 18 to 36 months. Toddlers use their bodies to further understand their world and to gain independence; they do not yet understand their limitations.
Toddlers use their gross-motor big muscles skills in activities such as climbing, running, pushing, pulling, jumping, and throwing. Older toddlers begin to walk up stairs with one foot on each step. Toddlers refine their fine-motor small muscles skills by practicing drawing, fitting pieces into simple puzzles, zipping with help , stacking and building with blocks, turning pages of a book, and holding a drinking cup. Toddlers point to objects as a way of communication.
Preschoolers Preschoolers spend a great deal of time running, climbing, jumping, and chasing each other; they scribble, paint, build, pour, cut with scissors, put puzzles together, and string beads. Here is a snapshot of physical development for preschoolers 3 to 5 years. Three-year-olds are good at running and climbing. They can pedal a tricycle and walk up and down stairs placing one foot on each step.
They are able to wash and dry their hands. Four-year-olds can hop and balance on one foot for up to two seconds. They catch a bounced ball most of the time and they are able to pour, cut, and mash their own food. They can use scissors and draw a person with two to four body parts.
Five-year-olds can skip and stand on one foot for 10 seconds or longer.
Comments on the article by Lumey and Susser. The Lumey and Susser article discusses the research on the long-term impacts of prenatal and postnatal nutrition with a focus on the psychosocial and behavioural consequences in adulthood. This is an important health and well-being issue for the general population. Inadequate nutrition in the first months of life, during pregnancy or shortly after birth, can affect the development of the brain in ways that leave traces into adulthood. The authors' interpretations are based on the literature they present. The subject has not been studied extensively, and the comparability of the findings is problematic.
Request PDF | Prenatal and perinatal factors in child development: A Nonetheless, environmental factors affect learning and behavior and.
The Woman Patient pp Cite as. While the majority of parents are granted this wish, a few are faced with loss of an infant in utero known as abortion or fetal wastage or by stillbirth, physical abnormalities detectable at birth, or developmental abnormalities detectable only as the child matures and demonstrates limitations in physical or mental growth. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content.
Health care providers who see newcomer families have a pivotal role to play in identifying and initiating early treatment for developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities may last a lifetime but early recognition of their existence, a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan can make a difference for the children and families involved. When seeing newcomer families, recognize that risk factors are cumulative.
Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth. Analyses included adjustment for maternal, household, and school characteristics. The strongest and most consistent relationships were with length birth, early infancy, and late infancy ; for weight, only early infancy gain was consistently related to IQ.
In considering physical development, the specific needs for children vary by age.
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