File Name: human geography places and regions in global context .zip
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environment s. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment, and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Ancient Geographers The term "geography" comes to us from the ancient Greeks, who needed a word to describe the writings and map s that were helping them make sense of the world in which they lived.
These concerns have been central to geography ever since. Of course, the Greeks were not the only people interested in geography. Throughout human history, most societies have sought to understand something about their place in the world, and the people and environments around them. Indeed, mapmaking probably came even before writing in many places. But ancient Greek geographers were particularly influential.
They developed very detailed maps of areas in and around Greece, including parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia. During the Middle Ages , geography ceased to be a major academic pursuit in Europe. Advances in geography were chiefly made by scientists of the Muslim world , based around the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. Islamic scholar s also applied their study of people and places to agriculture , determining which crop s and livestock were most suited to specific habitat s or environments.
In addition to the advances in the Middle East , the Chinese empire in Asia also contributed immensely to geography. Until about , China was the most prosperous civilization on Earth. The Chinese were scientifically advanced, especially in the field of astronomy. Around , they also achieved one of the most important developments in the history of geography: They were the first to use the compass for navigation al purposes.
Curiosity was awakened; a desire to trade with wealthy Asian cultures motivated a renewed interest in exploring the world. The period of time between the 15th and 17th centuries is known in the West as the Age of Exploration or the Age of Discovery.
With the dawn of the Age of Discovery, the study of geography regained popularity in Europe. The invention of the printing press in the mids helped spread geographic knowledge by making maps and chart s widely available. Improvements in shipbuilding and navigation facilitate d more exploring, greatly improving the accuracy of maps and geographic information. Greater geographic understanding allowed European powers to extend their global influence.
During the Age of Discovery, European nations established colonies around the world. Improved transportation , communication , and navigational technology allowed countries such as the United Kingdom to successfully govern colonies as far away as the Americas, Asia, Australia, and Africa. Geography was not just a subject that made colonialism possible, however.
It also helped people understand the planet on which they lived. Not surprisingly, geography became an important focus of study in schools and universities. Geography also became an important part of other academic discipline s, such as chemistry , economics , and philosophy.
In fact, every academic subject has some geographic connection. Chemists study where certain chemical element s, such as gold or silver , can be found. Economists examine which nations trade with other nations, and what resource s are exchanged. Philosophers analyze the responsibility people have to take care of the Earth. Emergence of Modern Geography Some people have trouble understanding the complete scope of the discipline of geography because, unlike most other disciplines, geography is not defined by one particular topic.
Instead, geography is concerned with many different topics—people, culture, politics , settlements, plants, landform s, and much more. What distinguishes geography is that it approaches the study of diverse topics in a particular way that is, from a particular perspective.
It looks at these different distributions and arrangements at many different scales. Geography seeks to understand where things are found and why they are present in those places; how things that are located in the same or distant places influence one another over time; and why places and the people who live in them develop and change in particular ways.
But exploration no longer simply means going to places that have not been visited before. It means document ing and trying to explain the variations that exist across the surface of Earth, as well as figuring out what those variations mean for the future.
The age-old practice of mapping still plays an important role in this type of exploration, but exploration can also be done by using images from satellite s or gathering information from interviews. Discoveries can come by using computers to map and analyze the relationship among things in geographic space, or from piecing together the multiple forces, near and far, that shape the way individual places develop. Studies of the geographic distribution of human settlements have shown how economic forces and modes of transport influence the location of towns and cities.
For example, geographic analysis has pointed to the role of the U. Interstate Highway System and the rapid growth of car ownership in creating a boom in U. The geographic perspective helped show where Americans were moving, why they were moving there, and how their new living places affected their lives, their relationships with others, and their interactions with the environment. Geographic analyses of the spread of disease s have pointed to the conditions that allow particular diseases to develop and spread.
When cholera broke out in London, England, in , Snow represented the deaths per household on a street map.
Using the map, he was able to trace the source of the outbreak to a water pump on the corner of Broad Street and Cambridge Street.
The geographic perspective helped identify the source of the problem the water from a specific pump and allowed people to avoid the disease avoiding water from that pump. Investigations of the geographic impact of human activities have advanced understanding of the role of humans in transforming the surface of Earth, exposing the spatial extent of threats such as water pollution by manmade waste.
For example, geographic study has shown that a large mass of tiny pieces of plastic currently floating in the Pacific Ocean is approximately the size of Texas. Because the study of geography is so broad, the discipline is typically divided into specialties. At the broadest level, geography is divided into physical geography , human geography , geographic techniques , and regional geography. Physical Geography The natural environment is the primary concern of physical geographers, although many physical geographers also look at how humans have altered natural systems.
Some disciplines within physical geography include geomorphology , glaciology , pedology , hydrology , climatology , biogeography , and oceanography. Geomorphology is the study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists investigate the nature and impact of wind , ice, rivers, erosion , earthquake s, volcano es, living things, and other forces that shape and change the surface of the Earth.
Glaciologists document the properties and distribution of glaciers and iceberg s. Data collected by glaciologists has demonstrated the retreat of Arctic and Antarctic ice in the past century. Pedologists study soil and how it is created, changed, and classified. Soil studies are used by a variety of professions, from farmer s analyzing field fertility to engineer s investigating the suitability of different areas for building heavy structures.
Hydrologists study the water cycle through rainfall into streams, lake s, the soil, and underground aquifer s. Hydrologists provide insight s that are critical to building or removing dam s, designing irrigation systems, monitoring water quality , tracking drought conditions, and predicting flood risk. For example, climatologists make predictions about El Nino , a cyclical weather phenomenon of warm surface temperature s in the Pacific Ocean.
They analyze the dramatic worldwide climate changes caused by El Nino, such as flooding in Peru, drought in Australia, and, in the United States, the oddities of heavy Texas rains or an unseasonably warm Minnesota winter. Biogeographers study the impact of the environment on the distribution of plants and animals. For example, a biogeographer might document all the places in the world inhabited by a certain spider species, and what those places have in common.
Observation of ocean tide s and current s constituted some of the first oceanographic investigations. For example, 18th-century mariner s figured out the geography of the Gulf Stream , a massive current flowing like a river through the Atlantic Ocean. The discovery and tracking of the Gulf Stream helped communications and travel between Europe and the Americas.
Today, oceanographers conduct research on the impacts of water pollution, track tsunami s, design offshore oil rig s, investigate underwater eruptions of lava , and study all types of marine organisms from toxic algae to friendly dolphins. They also might look at how consumer s in China and India adjust to new technology and market s, and how markets respond to such a huge consumer base.
Human geographers also study how people use and alter their environments. When, for example, people allow their animals to overgraze a region, the soil erodes and grassland is transformed into desert. The impact of overgrazing on the landscape as well as agricultural production is an area of study for human geographers. Finally, human geographers study how political, social, and economic systems are organized across geographical space.
These include government s, religious organizations, and trade partnerships. The boundaries of these groups constantly change. The main divisions within human geography reflect a concern with different types of human activities or ways of living. Some examples of human geography include urban geography, economic geography, cultural geography, political geography, social geography, and population geography. Human geographers who study geographic patterns and processes in past times are part of the subdiscipline of historical geography.
Those who study how people understand maps and geographic space belong to a subdiscipline known as behavioral geography. Many human geographers interested in the relationship between humans and the environment work in the subdisciplines of cultural geography and political geography. Cultural geographers study how the natural environment influences the development of human culture, such as how the climate affects the agricultural practices of a region. Political geographers study the impact of political circumstances on interactions between people and their environment, as well as environmental conflicts, such as disputes over water rights.
Some human geographers focus on the connection between human health and geography. For example, health geographers create maps that track the location and spread of specific diseases. They analyze the geographic disparities of health-care access.
They are very interested in the impact of the environment on human health, especially the effects of environmental hazards such as radiation , lead poisoning, or water pollution. Geographic Techniques Specialists in geographic techniques study the ways in which geographic processes can be analyzed and represented using different methods and technologies.
Mapmaking, or cartography , is perhaps the most basic of these. Cartography has been instrumental to geography throughout the ages. As early as BCE, Polynesian navigators in the Pacific Ocean used complex maps made of tiny sticks and shells that represented islands and ocean currents they would encounter on their voyages. Today, satellites placed into orbit by the U. Department of Defense communicate with receivers on the ground called global positioning system GPS units to instantly identify exact locations on Earth.
Today, almost the entire surface of Earth has been mapped with remarkable accuracy, and much of this information is available instantly on the internet. Technological developments during the past years have given rise to a number of other specialties for scientists studying geographic techniques.
The airplane made it possible to photograph land from above.
Unlimited access to the largest selection of audiobooks and textbooks aligned to school curriculum on the only app specifically designed for struggling readers, like students dealing with dyslexia, blindness or other learning differences. Described as "fresh, innovative, and intelligent," H uman Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context is acclaimed for its modern global approach, conceptual rigor, engaging real-world applications, and stunning visual program. Knox and Marston foster awareness of current issues and developing trends from a geographic perspective, and provide a solid foundation in the fundamentals of human geography. The authors give meaning to people and places by integrating compelling local, regional, and global viewpoints. By providing access to the latest ideas, concepts, and theories, the text not only builds students' knowledge about places and regions, but deepens their understanding of the interdependence of places and regions in a globalizing world. Add to Bookshelf.
Instructor's Resource Materials (Download Only) for Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context, 6th Edition. Paul L. Knox, Virginia Tech. Sallie A.
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The Cultural Landscape 12th Edition Pdf Free id c online pdf ebook epub library that engages students and appeals to instructors for courses geography ap edition 12th edition the cultural landscape an. This edition doesn't have a description yet. The aim of the analysis was to provide a working model for the integration of the assessment and conservation of built heritage into broader projects devoted to the sustainable restoration of natural spaces undergoing evident declines in habitability. The 12th Edition challenges readers to apply geography tools and techniques to their local environments, bridging the global and the local, and getting students to interact with their local geography. Access codes and supplements are not guaranteed with rentals.
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environment s. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment, and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Ancient Geographers The term "geography" comes to us from the ancient Greeks, who needed a word to describe the writings and map s that were helping them make sense of the world in which they lived. These concerns have been central to geography ever since.
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