File Name: the collapse of the weimar republic political economy and crisis .zip
The term "Weimar Republic" refers to the city of Weimar , where the republic's constituent assembly first took place.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. This is a succinct overview of the turbulent economic history of the Weimar Republic.
The first elections for the new Republic were held on the 19 January They used a voting system called Proportional Representation. The rest of the seats were divided up between the smaller parties.
This coalition then had the task of drawing up a constitution for the new republic. As Berlin was still in the grips of revolution, the market town of Weimar was chosen as the meeting place.
The Weimar Republic adopted a new constitution , different to that of the previous monarchy. Under the new republic, all adults over the age of twenty could vote. The chancellor was the leader of the Reichstag. The chancellor held similar position to the British Prime Minister, and was appointed by the President.
Typically, the chancellor would be the leader of the largest party, although this was not always the case. The Weimar Republic was a federal system. Despite these changes, there were also many aspects of the government that continued as before. To maintain stability in government, many of the old civil servants and military leaders stayed in similar positions of power, and therefore still had enormous influence. This meant that no one party had overall an overall majority, and parties joined together to rule in coalitions.
In these coalitions, each party had different aims which often led to disagreements on policy. In addition to this difficulty, the unpopular reparations payments, which Germany were forced to pay through the Treaty of Versailles , put a huge amount of economic pressure on the government.
These tough economic and political circumstances made people susceptible to extreme political views. Throughout the war, the value of the German currency, the Reichsmark, fell considerably. In , one British pound was equal to twenty German marks.
In , one British pound was equal to marks. To try and meet the requirements of government spending and alleviate the post-war situation, the government had little choice but to print more money. This in fact made the inflationary situation worse and again reduced the value of the Reichsmark. Meanwhile, in the midst of this economic crisis, Germany continued to attempt to pay the reparations as dictated by the Treaty of Versailles.
The reparations had to be paid in gold marks, which maintained its value, whilst the German currency declined. This made it more and more expensive to pay. In , Germany requested permission to suspend their payments whilst their economy recovered. This was refused by the Allies. By , Germany reached breaking point as inflation started to run out of control. They were unable to continue paying reparations. On the 9 January , in response to the lack of payment of reparations, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr.
The Ruhr was a region of Germany which contained resources such as factories. With the German governments support, the workers went on strike. The French sent in their own workers, and arrested the leaders of the German strikers and the German police. This led to violence on both sides. With the French and Belgian occupation of the Ruhr, goods in Germany became even more difficult to obtain, and therefore very expensive.
To fix this problem and pay the striking Ruhr workers, the government again printed more money. This led to hyperinflation. By the autumn of a loaf of bread cost ,,, marks. Workers paid by the hour found their wages were worthless, because prices had risen since they began their shifts. The situation was critical. It was at this moment of crisis that Gustav Stresemann was elected as chancellor in September These improved relationships would then in turn help him to secure a reasonable revision to the treaty.
Following this policy, Stresemann made the unpopular decision to start repaying the reparations and order the striking workers of the Ruhr to return to work. Stresemann also appointed Hjalmar Schacht , a banker, to tackle the issue of hyperinflation.
One Rentenmark was worth 10,,,, of the old currency. This was called the Dawes Plan. Under this plan, the reparations were reduced to 50 million marks a year for the next five years, and then million marks a year following that. The plan also recommended that the German National Bank was reorganised, and that Germany receive an international loan. This loan was for million gold marks, financed primarily by America. These measures eased the economic pressure on Germany, and relations with other countries began to improve and then stabilise.
In , Germany was accepted into the League of Nations. The Dawes Plan, alongside a sudden injection of foreign loans, helped the German economy to stabilise and prosper. This situation allowed the German government to invest in new public facilities, such as hospitals and schools.
Those in work saw real improvements in working conditions as wages increased and working hours decreased. Culture in Germany also flourished, as previously established thoughts and beliefs were thrown aside for new ideas. The German art school Bauhaus is a key example of this, promoting experimental modernist art and architecture. Unemployment was still very high with two million people unemployed in The farming industry was also slow to recover from the wartime pressures, and agricultural and rural wages were much lower than those in big towns and cities.
Furthermore, the sudden injection of foreign loans had left Germany dependent on income that they could not control.
Despite this, Germany had made significant steps on the road to recovery between Unfortunately, this would come to an abrupt end with the Wall Street Crash of The Dawes Plan for reparations payments ended in A new, final, plan was created to cover the rest of the debt. This was called the Young Plan, named after its creator Owen D.
The new plan had two key features. It gave an end date for the reparations payments, and it gave Germany a set amount to pay each year. The end date of the payments was set for , 59 years away in when the plan was being formulated.
The average annual payment would be two billion marks. The Young Plan aimed to continue the stablisation of the German economy, whilst still fulfilling the reparations payments from the First World War. The plan faced some extreme opposition in the press and the Reichstag. They claimed the plan represented acceptance for the war, and therefore made German liable to having to pay reparations. The nationalists wanted an end to the payments and the Treaty of Versailles.
Despite this opposition, with little other way forward, the Reichstag passed the plan and it was formally adopted in Whilst not as experimental, the villages, towns and other cities across Germany also underwent a new phase of culture. Whilst, somewhat inevitably, censorship did still take place, the borders of what was allowed to be published were relaxed and there was a great deal more freedom.
Despite the economic pressures of the early s, public funding at a local level was widely invested in culture and the arts. The music hall and the theatre became less popular as the cinema exploded onto the screen. By the end of the s more than cinemas operated in Germany, and in , approximately million cinema tickets were sold, in comparison to approximately twelve million theatre tickets in Whilst welcomed by many, the new age of Weimar culture also had critics.
The cultural experimentation was seen as a dramatic break with the tradition of Germany, influenced by Western culture. This feeling resonated with many conservatives outside of Berlin, who found the new experimental culture alienating. The Wall Street Crash was a stock market crash that took place from the 24 October to 29 October Following the optimism of the s, people were keen to invest in stocks and shares, where they believed they could make a fortune.
However, shortly after this, prices started to drop. This led to mass panic selling. By October , the value of the market halved. As the world economies were linked through international business, the Wall Street Crash resulted in an international depression. As a result of this international depression, and the need for money at home, the USA called in their international loans.
Germany was reliant on international loans and investment. They had used these, as explored above, to rebuild their economy after the war and hyperinflation crisis, and invest in new schools, businesses and hospitals.
As the USA removed this investment, Germany fell into another economic crisis. When created, the Weimar Republic was hailed as one of the most democratic governments in Europe.
Despite this, it lasted just fifteen years. The republic had many democratic strengths. It allowed individual freedoms for everyone. This granted the right to free speech, the right to equality and the right to religion to every German citizen. All adults over the age of twenty could vote. The voting system used was Proportional Representation , a fair system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them.
This system was used to elect the president and the Reichstag.
Mason, David Abraham. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In.
The Collapse of the Weimar Republic: Political Economy and Crisis. By AbrahamDavid. Request Full-text Paper PDF. To read the full-text of.
By , a web of hostile alliances entangled Germany and most of the other European nations. When war erupted between Austria and Serbia, Russia and France threatened to intervene. World War I had broken out.
The first elections for the new Republic were held on the 19 January They used a voting system called Proportional Representation. The rest of the seats were divided up between the smaller parties. This coalition then had the task of drawing up a constitution for the new republic.
It is self-evident that the first half of the 20th century determined the political economy of West Germany drastically. Two world wars resulted in the loss of millions of lives, of land and raw materials in Europe and overseas and of vast amounts of capital through military expenditure, war damage and reparations. If one adds the inflationary and recessionary crises of the Weimar Republic, Germany was exposed to four extended periods of economic instability —18 , —23 , —34 and —45, which together can be seen to have thrown back social and economic development significantly.
- Но если вы в центре, то это совсем недалеко от. - Извините, но для прогулок час слишком поздний. Тут рядом полицейский участок. Я занесу им, а вы, когда увидите мистера Густафсона, скажете ему, где его паспорт.
И там и там уран, но разный. - В обеих бомбах уран? - Джабба оживился и прильнул к экрану. - Это обнадеживает: яблоки и яблоки.
Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь. Она в ужасе смотрела, как он придавливает ее к полу, стараясь разобрать выражение его глаз. Похоже, в них угадывался страх. Или это ненависть. Они буквально пожирали ее тело.
Вскоре спуск закончился, переключились какие-то шестеренки, и лифт снова начал движение, на этот раз горизонтальное. Сьюзан чувствовала, как кабина набирает скорость, двигаясь в сторону главного здания АНБ.
Стратмору нужен был козел отпущения. Кроме всего прочего, Хейл был настоящим ходячим несчастьем, готовым свалиться на голову в любую минуту. Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня. - Говорите.
Вдалеке, метрах в пятистах, на фоне ночного неба возникли силуэты самолетных ангаров. Он подумал, успеет ли такси догнать его на таком расстоянии, и вспомнил, что Сьюзан решала такие задачки в две секунды. Внезапно он почувствовал страх, которого никогда не испытывал. Беккер наклонил голову и открыл дроссель до конца.
Здесь не было ни души, если не считать уборщицы, драившей пол. На противоположной стороне зала служащая закрывала билетную кассу компании Иберия эйр-лайнз. Беккеру это показалось дурным предзнаменованием. Он подбежал к кассе. - El vuelo a los Estados Unidos.
- Ты меня недооценил, сынок.
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