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Meteorological Measurements And Instrumentation Pdf

meteorological measurements and instrumentation pdf

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A device that measures the direction of the wind. It spins on a rod and points in the direction from which the wind blows.

701-1236-00L Measurement Methods in Meteorology and Climate Research

A device that measures the direction of the wind. It spins on a rod and points in the direction from which the wind blows. The part of the vane that turns into the wind is usually shaped like an arrow. The other end is wide so it will catch the smallest breeze.

A light, flexible cylinder or cone mounted on a mast to show the direction and strength of the wind. Wind sock is commonly used at an airport or chemical plant. The cone-shaped bag opened at both ends so that it extends horizontally as the wind blows through it and indicates the wind direction by pointing away from the wind. An instrument that continuously records and provide a graphical representation of atmospheric pressure. Campbell-Stokes Pattern Sunshine Recorder employs a glass sphere to focus the sun's rays to an intense spot, which will burn a mark on a curved card mounted concentrically with the sphere.

As the earth rotates the position of the spot moves across the card. When the sun is obscured, the trace is interrupted. At the end of the day the total length of the burn or trace, less gaps, equals the duration of sunshine hours.

A ceilometer is a device that uses a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud ceiling or a cloud base from the ground.

Ceilometers can also be used to measure the aerosol concentration within the atmosphere. A type of evaporation gauge or evaporimeter; it is a pan used in the measurement of the evaporation of water into the atmosphere over specified periods of time.

An instrument used to measure the humidity, or amount of water vapour in the atmosphere. The sensing mechanism of the instrument can be hair hair hygrometer , a plate coated with carbon electrical hygrometer , or an infrared sensor infrared hygrometer. A hygrometer composed of two similar thermometers.

The bulb of one thermometer is kept wet by means of a thin, wet cloth wick so that the cooling that results from evaporation makes it register a lower temperature than the dry-bulb thermometer. When readings are taken simultaneously, it is possible with the use of psychrometric tables to determine the relative humidity and dew-point temperature of the air.

An instrument which records the environmental temperature and humidity at the same time, usually both continually. A standard shelter for housing four types of thermometers: dry, wet, maximum and minimum. The screen shields the instruments from direct sunlight. A traditional thermometer consists of mercury, red spirit or green spirit in a glass tube and operates on the principle that the liquid expands more than the glass does when heated. Maximum temperature has historically been measured with a mercury-in-glass thermometer which has a constriction in the neck of the thermometer tube.

As the air temperature rises mercury is forced past the constriction. However, as the temperature falls the constriction prevents the mercury from returning to the bulb of the thermometer. The height of mercury in the tube remains at that reached at the hottest time of day. The thermometer is reset by gentle shaking.

Alcohol-in-glass thermometers containing a moveable index are used to manually record minimum temperatures. When the temperature falls, the liquid and index move down the column, but when the temperature rises the index remains in the lowest position while the liquid expands up the tube.

The position of the index indicates the lowest temperature reached since the last reset - which is achieved by tilting the thermometer, bulb end upwards. When people refer to the temperature of the air they are normally referring to the dry bulb temperature. Wet Bulb temperature can be measured by using a thermometer with the bulb wrapped in wet muslin. The adiabatic evaporation of water from the thermometer bulb and the cooling effect is indicated by a "wet bulb temperature" lower than the "dry bulb temperature" in the air.

By combining the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature in a psychrometric chart the state of the humid air can be determined. An instrument that measure the amount of rain that falls during a given time interval usually in millimetres or inches. The total amount of rainfall which reaches the ground in a stated period is expressed as the depth to which it would cover the earth if it were all flat and level, and if there were no loss by evaporation, or if there was no runoff or infiltration.

The standard rain gauge takes the form of a collector above a funnel leading to a receiver with some sort of measuring device. Sometimes the amount of rain is poured carefully into a measuring cylinder or dip rods or a ruler dipped into the receiver to determine the amount. Three types of automatic precipitation recorders are in general use: the weighing recording, the tilting or tipping-bucket type and the float type.

Only the weighing type is satisfactory for measuring all kinds of precipitation such as. The use of the other two types for the most part is limited to the measurement of rainfall. Links Facebook RSS. Element: Wind Direction Instrument: Wind Sock A light, flexible cylinder or cone mounted on a mast to show the direction and strength of the wind.

Element: Atmospheric Pressure Instrument: Barograph An instrument that continuously records and provide a graphical representation of atmospheric pressure. Element: Sunshine Duration Instrument: Campbell-Stoke Sunshine Recorder Campbell-Stokes Pattern Sunshine Recorder employs a glass sphere to focus the sun's rays to an intense spot, which will burn a mark on a curved card mounted concentrically with the sphere.

Element: Cloud Height Instrument: Ceilometer A ceilometer is a device that uses a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud ceiling or a cloud base from the ground. Element: Instrument: Evaporation Pan A type of evaporation gauge or evaporimeter; it is a pan used in the measurement of the evaporation of water into the atmosphere over specified periods of time.

Element: Humidity Instrument: Hygrometer An instrument used to measure the humidity, or amount of water vapour in the atmosphere. Element: Humidity Instrument: Psychrometer A hygrometer composed of two similar thermometers. Element: Temperature and Humidity Instrument: Thermo-hygrograph An instrument which records the environmental temperature and humidity at the same time, usually both continually.

Element: Temperature and Humidity Instrument: Stevenson Screen A standard shelter for housing four types of thermometers: dry, wet, maximum and minimum. Element: Temperature Instrument: Maximum Temperature Maximum temperature has historically been measured with a mercury-in-glass thermometer which has a constriction in the neck of the thermometer tube.

Element: Temperature Instrument: Minimum Temperature Alcohol-in-glass thermometers containing a moveable index are used to manually record minimum temperatures. Element: Temperature Instrument: Wet Bulb Temperature Wet Bulb temperature can be measured by using a thermometer with the bulb wrapped in wet muslin. The evaporation from the wet muslin is reduced when air contains more water vapor. By combining the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature in a psychrometric chart the state of the humid air can be determined Element: Rainfall Instrument: Rain Gauge An instrument that measure the amount of rain that falls during a given time interval usually in millimetres or inches.

Element: Rainfall Instrument: Automatic Raingauge Three types of automatic precipitation recorders are in general use: the weighing recording, the tilting or tipping-bucket type and the float type. Element: Rainfall Instrument: Rain Gauge An instrument that measure the amount of rain that falls during a given time interval usually in millimetres or inches.

Weather station

The spring semester will certainly take place online until Easter. Exceptions: Courses that can only be carried out with on-site presence. Please note the information provided by the lecturers. Semester Spring Semester Lecturers M. Hirschi , D.

Haynes ManualsThe Haynes Author : Fred V. Brock, Scott J. Richardson Description:This book treats instrumentation used in meteorological surface systems, both on the synoptic scale and the mesoscale, and the instrumentation used in upper air soundings. The text includes material on first- and second-order differential equations as applied to instrument dynamic performance, and required solutions are developed.

701-1236-00L Measurement Methods in Meteorology and Climate Research

Weather station

A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate. The measurements taken include temperature , atmospheric pressure , humidity , wind speed , wind direction , and precipitation amounts.

Meteorological measurement systems [illustrated edition]0195134516, 9780195134513

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Moehrlen and J. Moehrlen , J.

Temperature is a physical quantity that describes heat and cold and is proportional to the average kinetic energy of a mass. Thermometers are used to measure the temperature. These can be standardized to one of three scales:.


Download Citation | Meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation | This book describes the fundamental Request Full-text Paper PDF.


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The tremendous interest in upper-air measurement quality by the meteorological community brought together experts from many agencies at a Workshop on Upper-Air Measurements and Instruments. The purpose of the workshop was to establish a forum for the interchange of information to discuss mutual problems and to provide a basis for future work. A major recommendation of the workshop was for the development of a reference radiosonde instrument. A description of the workshop highlights are presented. Sign in Sign up. Advanced Search Help.

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