File Name: early latin america a history of colonial spanish america and brazil .zip
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Lyle N. Mcauster, james lockhart and stuart b. Cambridge Latin American Studies, number New York: Cambridge University Press. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account.
The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile and spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors. The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire , with the exception of Brazil , British America , and some small regions in South America and the Caribbean. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer this vast territory. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction  and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. Beginning with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands , half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America.
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Hispanic America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil under the term " Ibero-America ", meaning those countries in the Americas with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish conquest of the Americas began in , and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world discovery , through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire. Napoleon 's intervention in Spain in and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the Hispanic American territories began their struggle for emancipation. Castro's revolution was only the first of its kind in Hispanic America. Leftist governments rose to power across the region, so the United States resorted to backing coups, such as the overthrow of the popular Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in Guatemala and the ouster of Juan Bosch in in the Dominican Republic , the latter of which led to the Dominican Civil War and the US occupation of the republic that year. The United States supported coups that installed dictators in Chile , Uruguay , and other countries, and they set up the School of the Americas to train future dictators like Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina and Manuel Noriega of Panama.
The Spaniards and Portuguese inhabit the Iberian peninsula, which forms the southwest portion of Europe. In Medieval times, however, they had experienced a history quite different from that of other southern Europeans. This had been dominated by the Muslim conquest of most of the peninsula in the early Middle Ages, and the Christian Reconquista which followed, which lasted for the rest of the medieval period. The Reconquista was a long struggle between several Christian kingdoms on one side, and the Muslim presence on the other. The Christian kingdoms, despite often fighting amongst themselves, gradually gained the upper hand against the equally quarrelsome Muslim emirates , and the last Muslim state fell to them in While Christians made up the majority in the population, uniquely for Europe they shared their lands with other people of very distinct race and culture. By the late 15th century there were also present many African slaves or ex-slaves , brought over either from the slave markets of North Africa or from lands south of the Sahara, which Portuguese ships had been visiting for several decades.
Ian Gentles. York University. Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and. Brazil, by James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz. Cambridge.
T he early Bourbon period in Spanish America is one whose time has finally come.
The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America. The continent continues to be home to indigenous peoples, some of whom built high civilizations prior to the arrival of Europeans in the late s and early s. South America has a history that has a wide range of human cultures and forms of civilization.
Recent readings and books, international conferences, networks and associations, and journal articles testify to this renewed interest 3. At a time when questions of crime, law and justice have become crucial to the deepening of democratization in Latin America, growing interest in this area of research is not surprising. But the methodological and thematic insights of the new cultural and social histories have also been influential. The reading of authors such as Michel Foucault, E. Thompson, Eric J. Indeed, it could be argued that the new work illuminates some obscure or insufficiently known aspects of Latin American history, calling into question traditional understandings of the nation, the state, the family, gender relations, elite values, and popular culture.
Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil. (Cambridge Latin American Studies, number ) New York: Cambridge.
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