File Name: human activities and environmental pollution .zip
The environment and its compartments have been severely polluted by heavy metals. This has compromised the ability of the environment to foster life and render its intrinsic values. Heavy metals are known to be naturally occurring compounds, but anthropogenic activities introduce them in large quantities in different environmental compartments. This occurs due to bioaccumulation in the food chains as a result of the nondegradable state of the heavy metals. Remediation of heavy metals requires special attention to protect soil quality, air quality, water quality, human health, animal health, and all spheres as a collection.
Transportation systems, from infrastructures to vehicle operations, have environmental impacts ranging from noise, the emission of pollutants to climate change. From one side, transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and freight, while on the other, transport activities are associated with environmental impacts. Further, environmental conditions impact transportation systems in terms of operating conditions and infrastructure requirements such as construction and maintenance see Transportation and Space for a review of these constraints.
The growth of passenger and freight mobility has expanded the role of transportation as a source of emission of pollutants and their multiple impacts on the environment. These impacts fall within three categories:. The complexities of the impacts have led to much controversy in environmental policy, the role of transportation, and mitigation strategies.
This is made even more complex by the fact that priorities between environmental and economic considerations shift in time , which can have an impact on public policy. The transportation sector is often subsidized, especially through the construction and maintenance of road infrastructure, which tends to be free of access. Sometimes, public stakes in transport modes, terminals, and infrastructure can be at odds with environmental issues.
If the owner and the regulator are the same different branches of the government , then there is a risk that regulations will not be effectively complied to. Total costs incurred by transportation activities, notably environmental damage, are generally not fully assumed by the users.
The lack of consideration of the real costs of transportation could explain several environmental problems. Yet, a complex hierarchy of costs is involved, ranging from internal mostly operations , compliance abiding by regulations , contingent risk of an event such as a spill to external assumed by the society.
If environmental costs are not included in this appraisal, the usage of the car is consequently subsidized by society, and costs accumulate as environmental pollution.
This requires due consideration as the number of vehicles, especially automobiles, is steadily increasing. The relationships between transport and the environment are multidimensional.
Some aspects are unknown, and some new findings may lead to changes in environmental policies. Historically, transportation was associated with very few negative environmental impacts because of the modes used and the low mobility levels. For instance, the construction of large navies composed of sailships was responsible for a level of deforestation in Western Europe and North America from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Urbanization in the 19th century and the reliance on horses created problems concerning the disposal of manure.
Further, industrialization and the development of steam engines lead to pollution e. Still, these issues remained marginal and localized. However, it is only in the 20th century that a comprehensive perspective about the links between transportation and the environment emerged, particularly with the massive diffusion of transportation modes such as the automobile and the airplane.
At the same time, manufacturing and marketing concepts such as planned obsolescence incited the design of modes such as the automobile and products that are transported that can continuously be replaced. The s and s were crucial decades in the realization of the negative environmental impacts of human activities and the need for regulations.
From an infrastructure perspective, the first comprehensive environmental regulation, the National Environmental Policy Act NEPA , was set in and required all federal agencies of the US government to make environmental impact assessments of their actions. Since an agency such as the Department of Transportation is an important provider and manager of transportation infrastructure, this legislation had substantial impacts on how transportation is assessed to be linked with environmental issues.
One clear consequence was the growth in the length and the complexity of approving transport infrastructure projects to ensure they meet environmental standards. Opponents of a project could also use the regulatory framework to delay or even cancel its construction and, on occasion, change its design parameters e. An unintended consequence was that the complexity of environmental regulations tends to impair innovations and incite current providers to keep existing infrastructure and facilities for the concern to trigger an uncertain environmental review with a new project.
In time, this slowed down the development of transport infrastructure and substantially increased their costs. From an operational perspective, the Clean Air Act of set clear air quality standards and expectations for both stationary e.
For transportation, it immediately set emissions standards for a list of acknowledged pollutants such as carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxide. The outcome was a rapid decline in air pollutant emissions by the transportation sector through better engine technology. The Clean Water Act of provided a similar regulatory environment concerning water pollution and the ability to build infrastructures over wetlands.
The s were characterized by a realization of global environmental issues , epitomized by the growing concerns between anthropogenic effects and climate change. These developments require a deep understanding of the reciprocal influence between the physical environment and transport infrastructures, and yet this understanding is often lacking. The main factors considered in the physical environment are geographical location, topography, geological structure, climate, hydrology, soil, natural vegetation, and animal life.
The environmental dimensions of transportation are related to the causes , the activities , the outputs, and the results of transport systems. Establishing linkages between environmental dimensions is a difficult undertaking. For instance, to what extent carbon dioxide emissions are linked to land use patterns?
Furthermore, transportation is embedded in environmental cycles, notably over the carbon cycle where carbon flows from one element of the biosphere, like the atmosphere, to another like the ecosphere, where it can be accumulated permanently or temporarily or passed on.
The relationships between transport and the environment are also complicated by two observations:. Establishing environmental policies for transportation thus must take account of the level of contribution and the geographical scale , otherwise, some policies may just move the problems elsewhere and have unintended consequences.
A noted example is environmental policies in advanced economies inciting the relocation of some activities with high environmental externalities e. This transfers the problem from one location to another. Still, such as transfer usually involves new equipment and technologies that are usually having a lower environmental impact.
Even if an administrative division municipality, county, state has adequate environmental enforcement policies, the geographical scale of an environmental impact notably air pollutants goes beyond established jurisdictions. This has become salient in the disposal of waste such as electronic goods that are transferred to developing economies with lower environmental regulations to be disposed of or recycled.
The structure of the transport network, the modes used, and traffic levels are the main factors of the environmental impact of transportation. Networks influence the spatial distribution of emissions e. In addition to these environmental impacts, economic and industrial processes sustaining the transport system must be considered.
These include the extraction and production of fuels, vehicles and construction materials, some of which are very energy-intensive e. They all have a life cycle timing their production, utilization, and disposal.
Thus, the evaluation of the link between transport and the environment without the consideration of cycles in the environment and in the product life alike is likely to convey a limited overview of the situation and may even lead to incorrect appraisal, policies and mitigation strategies.
Transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and freight, notably in urban areas. But transport activities have resulted in growing levels of motorization and congestion. As a result, the transportation sector is becoming increasingly linked to environmental problems. These include carbon dioxide CO2 , methane CH4 , nitrous oxide N2O , and halocarbons, gases that accumulate in the atmosphere long enough to reach a homogeneous composition across the world.
Thus, irrespective of the location, their concentration is similar. The quantity of conventional greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere has increased substantially since the industrial revolution and particularly over the last 25 years. The respective impacts of greenhouse gases are further complicated by differences in their atmospheric lifetime or residence time , which is the time they spend in the atmosphere before decaying or being absorbed by biological or chemical processes.
For CO2, it can range between 5 and years, while it is about 12 years for methane and years for N2O. For halocarbons, such as Chlorofluorocarbons, it is at least 45 years.
There is an ongoing debate about to what extent these emissions are linked with climate change, but the debate relates more to the extent of these impacts than their nature. The rise in air traffic, in addition to its emissions, has increased the number of contrails, which are mainly ice crystals formed from condensation around planes flying at high altitudes. They can contribute to climate change in a paradoxical fashion as, on the one hand, they can trap heat, and on the other, they are also reflecting solar radiation.
In addition to being a contributor to climate change, transportation is also impacted by it , particularly over infrastructure e.
Highway vehicles, marine engines, locomotives, and aircraft are the sources of pollution in the form of gas and particulate matter emissions. They affect air quality and cause damage to human health. The most common include lead Pb , carbon monoxide CO , nitrogen oxides NOx , silicon tetrafluoride SF6 , benzene and volatile components BTX , heavy metals zinc, chrome, copper, and cadmium and particulate matters ash, dust.
Lead emissions have declined substantially in the last decades as its use as an anti-knock agent for gasoline was banned in most of the world from the s. Only a few countries, such as Myanmar, Iraq, and North Korea are still using leaded fuel. Toxic air pollutants are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological diseases.
Carbon monoxide CO , when inhaled, reduces the availability of oxygen in the circulatory system and can be extremely harmful and even deadly at specific concentrations. Nitrogen dioxide NO2 emissions from transportation sources reduce lung function, affect the respiratory immune defense system, and increases the risk of respiratory problems.
The emissions of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides NOx in the atmosphere form various acidic compounds that, when mixed in cloud water, creates acid rain. Acid precipitation has detrimental effects on the built environment, reduces agricultural crop yields, and causes forest decline.
Smog is a mixture of solid and liquid fog and smoke particles formed through the accumulation of carbon monoxide, ozone, hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide, water, particulates, and other chemical pollutants.
The reduction of visibility caused by smog has several adverse impacts on the quality of life and the attractiveness of tourist sites.
Particulate emissions in the form of dust emanating from vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust sources such as vehicle and road abrasion impact air quality.
The physical and chemical properties of particulates are associated with health risks such as respiratory problems, skin irritations, eyes inflammations, blood clotting, and various types of allergies. Smog is often exacerbated by local physical and meteorological conditions, creating periods of high smog concentration and public responses to mitigate them, such as restricting automobile use temporarily. Air quality issues have been comprehensively addressed in advanced economies, with substantial declines in the emissions of a wide range of pollutants.
In developing economies, rapid motorization has shifted the concern to the large cities of China and India among those the most impacted by the deterioration of air quality. Noise represents the general effect of irregular and chaotic sounds on people as well as animal life. Basically, noise is an undesirable sound. The acoustic measure of the intensity of noise is expressed in decibel dB with a scale ranging from 1 dB to dB.
Long term exposure to noise levels above 75 decibels severely hampers hearing and affects human physical and psychological well-being. Noise emanating from the movement of transport vehicles and the operations of ports, airports, and railyards affects human health through an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Ambient noise is a frequent result of road transportation in urban areas, which is the cumulative outcome of all the noise generated by vehicles ranging from 45 to 65 dB , impairs the quality of life and property values.
Falling land values nearby acute noise sources such as airports are often noted since buyers are less willing to bid on properties in areas of elevated noise levels.
Many noise regulations impose mitigation if noise reaches a defined level, such as sound walls and other soundproofing techniques. Transport activities have an impact on hydrological conditions and water quality. Fuel, chemicals, and other hazardous particulates discarded from aircraft, cars, trucks, and trains or port and airport terminal operations can contaminate hydrographic systems.
Because demand for maritime shipping has increased, marine transport emissions represent the most important segment of water quality impact of the transportation sector. The main effects of marine transport operations on water quality predominantly arise from dredging, waste, ballast waters, and oil spills. Dredging is the process of deepening harbor channels by removing sediments from the bed of a body of water.
Dredging is essential to create and maintain sufficient water depth for shipping operations and port accessibility.
Environmental pollution is reaching worrying proportions worldwide. Urbanization and industrialization along with economic development have led to increase in energy consumption and waste discharges. The global environmental pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions and acid deposition, as well as water pollution and waste management is considered as international public health problems, which should be investigated from multiple perspectives including social, economic, legislation, and environmental engineering systems, as well as lifestyle habits helping health promotion and strengthening environmental systems to resist contamination [ 1 — 3 ]. Environmental pollutants have various adverse health effects from early life some of the most important harmful effects are perinatal disorders, infant mortality, respiratory disorders, allergy, malignancies, cardiovascular disorders, increase in stress oxidative, endothelial dysfunction, mental disorders, and various other harmful effects [ 4 , 5 ]. Though, short-term effects of environmental pollutants are usually highlighted, wide range of hazards of air pollution from early life and their possible implication on chronic non-communicable diseases of adulthood should be underscored. Numerous studies have exposed that environmental particulate exposure has been linked to increased risk of morbidity and mortality from many diseases, organ disturbances, cancers, and other chronic diseases [ 6 , 7 ].
Transportation systems, from infrastructures to vehicle operations, have environmental impacts ranging from noise, the emission of pollutants to climate change. From one side, transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and freight, while on the other, transport activities are associated with environmental impacts. Further, environmental conditions impact transportation systems in terms of operating conditions and infrastructure requirements such as construction and maintenance see Transportation and Space for a review of these constraints. The growth of passenger and freight mobility has expanded the role of transportation as a source of emission of pollutants and their multiple impacts on the environment. These impacts fall within three categories:. The complexities of the impacts have led to much controversy in environmental policy, the role of transportation, and mitigation strategies. This is made even more complex by the fact that priorities between environmental and economic considerations shift in time , which can have an impact on public policy.
Environmental degradation is the disintegration of the earth or deterioration of the environment through the consumption of assets, for example, air, water and soil; the destruction of environments and the eradication of wildlife. Ecological effect or degradation is created by the consolidation of an effectively substantial and expanding human populace, constantly expanding monetary development or per capita fortune and the application of asset exhausting and polluting technology. Saving our planet, lifting people out of poverty, advancing economic growth… these are one and the same fight. Solutions to one problem must be solutions for all. According to Wikipedia ,. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the largest threats that are being looked at in the world today.
Environmental sustainability implies meeting our current needs without jeopardizing the right and the ability of future generations to meet theirs. Opportunities should be identified and taken to reduce the production of wastes and the use of toxic materials, to prevent soil, water, and air pollution and to conserve and reuse resources, as feasible.
В самом низу она увидела слова: РАССКАЖИТЕ МИРУ О ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ СЕЙЧАС ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА Сьюзан похолодела. В АНБ сосредоточена самая секретная государственная информация: протоколы военной связи, разведданные, списки разведчиков в зарубежных странах, чертежи передовой военной техники, документация в цифровом формате, торговые соглашения, - и этот список нескончаем. - Танкадо не посмеет этого сделать! - воскликнула. - Уничтожить всю нашу секретную информацию? - Сьюзан не могла поверить, что Танкадо совершит нападение на главный банк данных АНБ. Она перечитала его послание. СЕЙЧАС ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА - Правда? - спросила .
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