File Name: internetworking concepts and architectural model .zip
Enabling Things to Talk pp Cite as. Besides models, the IoT Reference Model provides the concepts and definitions on which IoT architectures can be built. As already stated above, the primary and thus the key model is the IoT Domain Model, which describes all the concepts that are relevant in the Internet of Things.
Therefore, it is advised to read Sect. Depending on the individual application of the IoT Domain Model, the Subsequent sections in this chapter provides details about the other models. Next, we explain, who the sub-models in the IoT Reference Model relate and link to each other, and how they form an integrated reference model. Interaction of all sub-models in the IoT Reference Model. The sub-models are explained in the text body. The abstraction level of the IoT Domain Model has been chosen in such a way that its concepts are independent of specific technologies and use-cases.
The idea is that these concepts are not expected to change much over the next decades or longer. It defines the structure e. The information pertaining to those concepts of the IoT Domain Model is modelled, which is explicitly gathered, stored and processed in an IoT system, e. The Functionality Groups provide the functionalities for interacting with the instances of these concepts or managing the information related to the concepts, e. The functionalities of the FGs that manage information use the IoT Information Model as the basis for structuring their information.
A key functionality in any distributed computer system is the communication between the different components. One of the characteristics of IoT systems is often the heterogeneity of communication technologies employed, which often is a direct reflection of the complex needs such systems have to meet. The IoT Communication Model introduces concepts for handling the complexity of communication in heterogeneous IoT environments.
Therefore, the relevant functionalities and their interdependencies and interactions are introduced in the IoT TSP Model.
As in the case of communication, security constitutes one FG in the Functional Model. The IoT-A project defines a domain model as a description of concepts belonging to a particular area of interest. The domain model also defines basic attributes of these concepts, such as name and identifier. Domain models also help to facilitate the exchange of data between domains The Consultative Committee Besides this official definition, and looking at our interpretation of it, our domain model also provides a common lexicon and taxonomy of the IoT domain Muller The terminology definitions of IoT-A are provided online Sect.
The main purpose of a domain model is to generate a common understanding of the target domain in question. Such a common understanding is important, not just project-internally, but also for the scientific discourse. Only with a common understanding of the main concepts it becomes possible to argue about architectural solutions and to evaluate them. As has been pointed out in literature, the IoT domain suffers already from an inconsistent usage and understanding of the meaning of many central terms Haller The domain model is an important part of any reference model since it includes a definition of the main abstract concepts abstractions , their responsibilities, and their relationships.
Regarding the level of detail, the Domain Model should separate out what does not vary much from what does.
For instance, there are many technologies to identify objects: RFID, bar codes, image recognition etc. And which is the best-suited technology for a particular application?
Since no one has the answers to such and related questions, the IoT Domain Model does not include particular technologies, but rather abstractions thereof. Before we discuss the main abstractions and relationships of the IoT Domain Model in detail, let us go back to our recurring example that we introduced in Sect. As we can see in Fig. Already at this stage we can easily deduct that there is some colour-coding involved that reflects an aspect of the respective entity.
What these colours exactly stand for is discussed in detail in the next Sections. There is also a categorisation in textual form, as the entity name that we know from our recurring example is succeeded by an entity category such as Sensor in the case of the humidity or temperature sensors and Human User in the case of Ted. What these entity categories mean and how they relate to each other is discussed in detail in the next sections.
In addition to the coloured boxes, the diagram also shows arrows with verbs that connect the boxes. If we look very closely to the arrows, we see that they have different terminators such as diamond shapes or traditional arrow shapes. These shapes illustrate different kinds of relationships between the objects that are connected by them.
In a similar way as the category names and the colour coding of the objects are related to each other, the verbs indicate information about the relationships shown with the arrows. These are all concepts of the UML notation that will be discussed in the next section.
Even without understanding all of the concepts in detail, we can already understand that the IoT Domain Model helps us structuring an application scenario.
We can use a concise graphical representation to show that for instance Ted, our truck driver, is a Human User that uses an Android application in order to subscribe to an Alarm service. We do not yet know what this exactly means, but as the reader will progresses through this document and possibly other documents that make use of the IoT Domain Model, Active Digital Artefacts will come up again and again. By providing a standardised vocabulary for naming things that relate to the same abstract concepts, we facilitate and streamline communication of the IoT ARM users.
While several other parts of the IoT Reference Model, for instance the IoT Information Model, directly depend on the IoT Domain Model, and also several views as we will see in the next chapter , it should already be noted that the IoT Domain Model also takes a central role in the process of generating concrete architectures beyond merely providing a common language. The latter is an architecture view that is usually generated at the very beginning of the architecture process.
It was developed by refining and extending two models found in the literature Haller ; Serbanati et al. The goal behind the IoT Domain Model is to capture the main concepts and the relationships that are relevant for IoT stakeholders.
UML is used to graphically illustrate the model Fowler Generalisation is used to depict an is-a relationship and should not be misinterpreted as sub-classing. Only the most important specialisations are shown, others are possible however.
For example, not every Device can be characterised as a Tag, a Sensor, or an Actuator. The specialisations are, however, generally disjoint, if not noted otherwise.
For the inverse relation, the cardinality at the source is relevant. For example see Fig. A Virtual Entity may contain 0 or more other Virtual Entities, whereas a Virtual Entity can optionally be contained in at most one other Virtual Entity. Concepts depicting hardware are shown in blue, software in green, animate beings in yellow, and concepts that fit into either multiple or no categories in brown.
They are Digital Artefacts. While there is generally only one Physical Entity for each Virtual Entity, it is possible that the same Physical Entity can be associated to several Virtual Entities, e. Each Virtual Entity must have one and only one ID that identifies it univocally.
Virtual Entities are Digital Artefacts that can be classified as either active or passive. Passive Digital Artefacts PDA are passive software elements such as database entries that can be digital representations of the Physical Entity.
Ideally, Virtual Entities are synchronised representations of a given set of aspects or properties of the Physical Entity. This means that relevant digital parameters representing the characteristics of the Physical Entity are updated upon any change of the former. In the same way, changes that affect the Virtual Entity could manifest themselves in the Physical Entity.
At this point it should be noted that while Fig. We introduce the concept of an Augmented Entity as the composition of one Virtual Entity and the Physical Entity it is associated to, in order to highlight the fact that these two concepts belong together. It should be noted that there might be many types of users, as we have discussed before.
A Human User is a specialisation of the general concept. However, different kinds of Users, such as maintenance people, owners, or security officers are plausible as well. It is also worth noting that we have not included different roles in the IoT Domain Model, for same reason that we have also not introduced different types of Users. Within the development of concrete architectures, it is very likely that the Users will take on different roles and these should be modelled accordingly.
As the underlying taxonomies will vary with the use cases addressed, we do not prescribe a specific taxonomy here. Especially in the enterprise domain, where security roles are fundamental to practically every single IoT architecture, one common option for modelling roles can be found in Raymond We will briefly revisit up this taxonomy within the context of the process management Section see Sect.
The relation between Virtual Entity and Physical Entity is usually achieved by embedding into, by attaching to, or by simply placing in close vicinity of the Physical Entity, one or more ICT Devices that provide the technological interface for interacting with, or gaining information about the Physical Entity.
By so doing the Device actually extends the Physical Entity and allows the latter to be part of the digital world. This can be achieved by using Devices of the same class, as in the case of certain similar kinds of body-area network nodes, or by using Devices of different classes, as in the case of an RFID tag and reader. A Device thus mediates the interactions between Physical Entities that have no projections in the digital world and Virtual Entities which have no projections in the physical world , generating a paired couple that can be seen as an extension of either one, i.
Devices are thus technical artefacts for bridging the real world of Physical Entities with the digital world of the Internet. This is done by providing monitoring, sensing, actuation, computation, storage and processing capabilities. It is noteworthy that a Device can also be a Physical Entity, especially in the context of certain applications.
An example for such an application is Device management, whose main concern is the Devices themselves and not the entities or environments that these Devices monitor. Sensors provide information, knowledge, or data about the Physical Entity they monitor. In this context, this ranges from the identity of the Physical Entity to measures of the physical state of the Physical Entit y. Like other Devices, they can be attached or otherwise embedded in the physical structure of the Physical Entity, or be placed in the environment and indirectly monitor Physical Entities.
An example for the latter is a face-recognition enabled camera. Information from sensors can be recorded for later retrieval e. Tags are used to identify Physical Entities, to which the Tags are usually physically attached. The primary purpose of Tags is to facilitate and increase the accuracy of the identification process. This process can be optical, as in the case of barcodes and QR codes, or it can be RF-based, as in the case of microwave car-plate recognition systems and RFID.
The actual physics of the process, as well as the many types of tags, are however irrelevant for the IoT Domain Model as these technologies vary and change over time. These are important however when selecting the right technology for the implementation of a concrete system;. Notice though that Devices can be aggregations of several Devices of different types. For instance, what we call a sensor node often contains both Sensors e.
Computer Networking Pdf Notes. See all the pieces that have worked together to form computer networks through the years. Oklahoma State University—Stillwater. This note is an introduction to the design and analysis of computer networks and their applications, including the basics of data communication, network topologies, protocols, routing and switching, naming and addressing. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters.
Network-Level Interconnection. • The internet concept. – detaches the notions of communication from the details of network technologies. – hides low-level.
Internetworking is the practice of interconnecting multiple computer networks ,  : such that any pair of hosts in the connected networks can exchange messages irrespective of their hardware-level networking technology.
Get the latest SEO and website quality news! Exclusive content and Ryte news delivered to your inbox, every month. Web Architecture can be defined as the conceptual structure of the internet. Types of web architecture include the client-server model and three-tier model. Web architecture is the conceptual structure of the World Wide Web. The WWW or internet is a constantly changing medium that enables communication between different users and the technical interaction interoperability between different systems and subsystems. The basis for this is different components and data formats, which are usually arranged in tiers and build on each other.
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Enabling Things to Talk pp Cite as. Besides models, the IoT Reference Model provides the concepts and definitions on which IoT architectures can be built. As already stated above, the primary and thus the key model is the IoT Domain Model, which describes all the concepts that are relevant in the Internet of Things. Therefore, it is advised to read Sect. Depending on the individual application of the IoT Domain Model, the Subsequent sections in this chapter provides details about the other models.
Backpropagational networks also tend to be slower to train than other types of networks and sometimes require thousands of epochs. Because plain text is ubiquitous and easy to use, it is the basis for most protocols. Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment by W. Beyond The Study…!.
The OSI Model is a logical and conceptual model that defines network communication used by systems open to interconnection and communication with other systems. The Open System Interconnection OSI Model also defines a logical network and effectively describes computer packet transfer by using various layers of protocols. In this TCP Model vs.
Architectural Working Drawings Pdf. Are you sure you want to remove Architectural working drawings from your list?. Blueprint measuring used to be primarily from paper plans and was measured typically by hand or by using a GTCO digitizer. It is a stable platform for drawing and reading blueprints. Supplemental Examples and Schedules.
Отказ Хирохито… - Нам нужно число, - повторял Джабба, - а не политические теории. Мы говорим о математике, а не об истории.
Кровь, вытекающая из головы, в голубоватом свечении казалась черной. На полу возле тела Хейла лежал листок бумаги. Сьюзан наклонилась и подняла. Это было письмо.
Когда их машины выдают полную чушь, они все равно на них молятся. Мидж повернулась к нему на своем стуле. - Это не смешно, Чед. Заместитель директора только что солгал директорской канцелярии.
Тут рядом полицейский участок. Я занесу им, а вы, когда увидите мистера Густафсона, скажете ему, где его паспорт. - Подождите! - закричал Ролдан.
Это диагностика, - сказала она, взяв на вооружение версию коммандера.
Последний щит угрожающе таял. Сьюзан и Соши занялись поисками во Всемирной паутине. - Лаборатория вне закона? - спросила Сьюзан.
Ключ, как правило, был довольно длинным и сложным и содержал всю необходимую информацию об алгоритме кодирования, задействуя математические операции, необходимые для воссоздания исходного текста. Теперь пользователь мог посылать конфиденциальные сообщения: ведь если даже его послание перехватывалось, расшифровать его могли лишь те, кто знал ключ-пароль. АНБ сразу же осознало, что возникла кризисная ситуация. Коды, с которыми столкнулось агентство, больше не были шифрами, что разгадывают с помощью карандаша и листка бумаги в клетку, - теперь это были компьютеризированные функции запутывания, основанные на теории хаоса и использующие множественные символические алфавиты, чтобы преобразовать сообщение в абсолютно хаотичный набор знаков. Сначала используемые пароли были довольно короткими, что давало возможность компьютерам АНБ их угадывать.
У нас столько времени, сколько. Сьюзан отказывалась понимать. Не появится. - Но вы же позвонили… Стратмор позволил себе наконец засмеяться.
Сирены по-прежнему выли. Пять секунд.
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