File Name: radiation hazards and protection .zip
While everyone is exposed to natural background radiation , workers may also be exposed to ionizing radiation in workplaces with radiation sources. These radiation sources can pose a health risk to workers if not properly controlled. Occupational settings with ionizing radiation sources include:. This Ionizing Radiation Safety and Health Topics page provides a starting point for technical and regulatory information regarding the recognition, evaluation, and control of occupational health hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The radiation protection guidance discussed here should be implemented within a framework of existing OSHA standards, including, as applicable, those for ionizing radiation and personal protective equipment PPE. This webpage discusses such standards generally and collectively. For example, mentions of "OSHA's Ionizing Radiation standards" refer to standards that protect workers from ionizing radiation in general industry, construction, shipyard employment, marine terminals, and longshoring.
Sources of ionizing radiation are used in some laboratory areas, including X-ray analytical equipment and radionuclides e. In most cases, such equipment or materials will be required to be under the control of an individual who holds an appropriate Radiation Licence. The use of sources of ionizing radiation is regulated by the Radiation Protection Act and Regulations which is administered by the Office of Radiation Safety in the Ministry of Health. Minimum requirements for use of sources of ionizing radiation are stipulated in Codes of Safe Practice that can be found on the Office of Radiation Safety website. The University of Otago Radiation Safety Plan Code of Practice describes the general requirements for areas that use sources of ionizing radiation.
Jump to navigation. Time directly influences the dose received: if you minimize the time spent near the source, the dose received is minimized. For example, if possible, interview a nuclear medicine patient before drug administration not after. The exposure rate from a radiation source drops off by the inverse of the distance squared. For example, if a problem arises during a fluoroscopy procedure, stand on the image intensifier side of the C-arm if possible, or, when not assisting, step away from the patient if feasible.
Medical imaging has led to improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of numerous medical conditions in children and adults. There are many types - or modalities - of medical imaging procedures, each of which uses different technologies and techniques. Computed tomography CT , fluoroscopy , and radiography "conventional X-ray" including mammography all use ionizing radiation to generate images of the body. CT, radiography, and fluoroscopy all work on the same basic principle: an X-ray beam is passed through the body where a portion of the X-rays are either absorbed or scattered by the internal structures, and the remaining X-ray pattern is transmitted to a detector e. These exams differ in their purpose:. The discovery of X-rays and the invention of CT represented major advances in medicine. X-ray imaging exams are recognized as a valuable medical tool for a wide variety of examinations and procedures.
Radiation protection , also known as radiological protection , is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation , and the means for achieving this". Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine, and can present a significant health hazard by causing microscopic damage to living tissue. There are two main categories of ionizing radiation health effects. At high exposures, it can cause "tissue" effects, also called "deterministic" effects due to the certainty of them happening, conventionally indicated by the unit gray and resulting in acute radiation syndrome. For low level exposures there can be statistically elevated risks of radiation-induced cancer , called " stochastic effects" due to the uncertainty of them happening, conventionally indicated by the unit sievert.
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This study was performed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice KAP of health care workers HCWs towards radiation protection. In this systematic review study, three international databases Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus were searched for related published articles in the English language from 1 January to 1 February Out of the 1, studies examined, 41 studies that were performed on 11, HCWs were included in the final stage. The most important recommendation for improving KAP among the participants was incorporating radiation protection standards in the student curriculum. Considering the results of the study, further attention should be paid to proper education regarding radiation protection standards and improvement of HCW performance. Daily, healthcare workers HCWs are exposed to occupational contacts with various diagnostic and therapeutic radiology interventions [ 1 ].
Тогда-то виновников компьютерных сбоев и стали называть вирусами. У меня нет на это времени, - сказала себе Сьюзан. На поиски вируса может уйти несколько дней. Придется проверить тысячи строк программы, чтобы обнаружить крохотную ошибку, - это все равно что найти единственную опечатку в толстенной энциклопедии. Сьюзан понимала, что ей ничего не остается, как запустить Следопыта повторно.
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