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Relationships may be created and maintained across and among the data and tables. In a relational database, relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables.
Interdependencies among these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers. This allows a high degree of data independence. An RDBMS has the capability to recombine the data items from different files, providing powerful tools for data usage. Read More Here. Database normalization is a data design and organization process applied to data structures based on rules that help building relational databases.
In relational database design, the process of organizing data to minimize redundancy is called normalization. Normalization usually involves dividing a database into two or more tables and defining relationships between the tables.
The objective is to isolate data so that additions, deletions, and modifications of a field can be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the database via the defined relationships. Make a separate table for each set of related attributes, and give each table a primary key.
Each field contains at most one value from its attribute domain. If an attribute depends on only part of a multi-valued key, remove it to a separate table. If attributes do not contribute to a description of the key, remove them to a separate table. All attributes must be directly dependent on the primary key. If there are non-trivial dependencies between candidate key attributes, separate them out into distinct tables.
No table may contain two or more 1:n or n:m relationships that are not directly related. There may be practical constrains on information that justify separating logically related many-to-many relationships. A model limited to only simple elemental facts, as expressed in Object Role Model notation.
Remember, these normalization guidelines are cumulative. De-normalization is the process of attempting to optimize the performance of a database by adding redundant data.
It is sometimes necessary because current DBMSs implement the relational model poorly. A true relational DBMS would allow for a fully normalized database at the logical level, while providing physical storage of data that is tuned for high performance. De-normalization is a technique to move from higher to lower normal forms of database modeling in order to speed up database access. A stored procedure is a named group of SQL statements that have been previously created and stored in the server database.
Stored procedures accept input parameters so that a single procedure can be used over the network by several clients using different input data. And when the procedure is modified, all clients automatically get the new version. Stored procedures reduce network traffic and improve performance. Stored procedures can be used to help ensure the integrity of the database.
Triggers are stored in and managed by the DBMS. Triggers are used to maintain the referential integrity of data by changing the data in a systematic fashion. A trigger cannot be called or executed; DBMS automatically fires the trigger as a result of a data modification to the associated table. Triggers can be viewed as similar to stored procedures in that both consist of procedural logic that is stored at the database level. Stored procedures, however, are not event-drive and are not attached to a specific table as triggers are.
Stored procedures are explicitly executed by invoking a CALL to the procedure while triggers are implicitly executed. In addition, triggers can also execute stored procedures. A trigger that contains data modification logic within itself is called a nested trigger. A simple view can be thought of as a subset of a table. It can be used for retrieving data, as well as updating or deleting rows. Rows updated or deleted in the view are updated or deleted in the table the view was created with.
It should also be noted that as data in the original table changes, so does data in the view, as views are the way to look at part of the original table.
The results of using a view are not permanently stored in the database. The data accessed through a view is actually constructed using standard T-SQL select command and can come from one to many different base tables or even other views. An index is a physical structure containing pointers to the data. Indices are created in an existing table to locate rows more quickly and efficiently. It is possible to create an index on one or more columns of a table, and each index is given a name.
The users cannot see the indexes; they are just used to speed up queries. Effective indexes are one of the best ways to improve performance in a database application. A table scan happens when there is no index available to help a query. In a table scan SQL Server examines every row in the table to satisfy the query results. Table scans are sometimes unavoidable, but on large tables, scans have a terrific impact on performance. With a linked server, you can create very clean, easy to follow, SQL statements that allow remote data to be retrieved, joined and combined with local data.
All Rights Reserved. Please Help How to open. I am working in mnc. Can you pls suggest me what all concepts i need to focus for upcoming interviews. Is anyone know how i can start or what is the best things to do to start in SQL or is any training center that i can physically go and take training. I am Sagar, i am planning to change the current job.
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Read More Here What are the properties of the Relational tables? Relational tables have six properties: Values are atomic. Column values are of the same kind. Each row is unique. The sequence of columns is insignificant. The sequence of rows is insignificant.
Each column must have a unique name. What is Normalization? What are different normalization forms? Leave new Rudrappa. Snehalata Shidling. Hi penal, I liked your website. Thanks, Regards, Sneha. Mittal Patel. Please let me know. Thanks, Mittal P. Sagar Deshmukh. Hi People, I am Sagar, i am planning to change the current job. Thanks in devance. Regards, Sagar. Mahesh Mokashi. Hi Pinal, i want sql server dba interview questions and answers pdf with all updated till date.
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How can it be changed? Therefore table can have only one clustered index. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages. A non clustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf node of a non clustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows. Kana Sensitivity — When Japanese kana characters Hiragana and Katakana are treated differently, it is called Kana sensitive.
You are at accurate place. SVR Technologies give SQL Server training online at your registered time, you can choose classes where, when, and how it accommodates you the best. Here is the top 50 objective standard model SQL Server Dba Interview questions and their answers are provided just underneath to them. We have taken complete care to provide accurate answers to all the questions. What is BCP? When does it use?
What are the different types of backups? Answer: The SQL server offers 4 types of backups to suit the need of the administrator. Complete backup :The complete back up is just zipping the content of the entire database in terms of the different tables and procedures etc. This back up can server as an independent entity that can be restored in different systems with just the base SQL server installed. Transaction log backup: This is the mechanism of backing up the transaction logs that have been maintained in the server. This way the details of the database getting updated is obtained.
MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS ON SQL SERVER DATA WAREHOUSING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS & ANSWERS .. the role of accidental DBA's (especially with SQL Server) is very common.
Relationships may be created and maintained across and among the data and tables. In a relational database, relationships between data items are expressed by means of tables. Interdependencies among these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers.
Ans: Yes! Adding CPUs can occur physically by adding new hardware, logically by online hardware partitioning, or virtually through a virtualization layer. Requires hardware that supports hot-add CPU.
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