File Name: homocysteine and cardiovascular disease .zip
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Metrics details. It is well known that neuronal damage following a stroke has been attributed to the over stimulation of excitatory amino acids such as glutamate and aspartate through activation of NMDA receptors. The brain is exposed to most of the constituents of plasma including homocysteine as a result of the disruption of the blood—brain barrier after stroke, head trauma and stress. The question, therefore, arises as to whether or not homocysteine is able to selectively stimulate the release of excitatory amino acids in stroke. This review article will address the importance of homocysteine in nervous system specifically how these amino acids may trigger the release of catecholamines. Our data will thus strengthen the view that a mechanism for the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with increased brain lesion in stroke. As hypothalamus also controls the cardiac function via sympathetic system, the contractility of heart will be compromised.
However, prospective studies of homocysteine are inconsistent and data among women are limited. Case subjects had significantly higher baseline homocysteine levels than controls Subjects with homocysteine levels in the highest quartile had a 2-fold increase in risk of any cardiovascular event relative risk [RR], 2. This effect was largely due to an excess of cases with high levels of homocysteine; the RR for those with homocysteine levels at or higher than the 95th percentile Risk estimates were independent of traditional risk factors and were greatest for the end points of MI and stroke RR for those with baseline homocysteine levels in the top quartile, 2. Whether lowering the homocysteine level reduces risk of cardiovascular events requires testing in randomized controlled trials. Several mechanisms have been proposed linking hyperhomocystinemia to vascular damage, and it has been hypothesized that elevated levels of total plasma homocysteine represent an important modifiable risk factor for atherothrombotic disease.
Many investigations have indicated hyperhomocystenemia as a risk factor, which is correlated with complications such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease CVD , and stroke. Findings: Review of the selected papers indicated that increased homocysteine levels as a risk marker for cardiovascular diseases, is associated with atheriosclerotic outcomes. Conclusion: The authors conclude uncertainty of whether or not folic acid means of homocysteine lowering forms of therapy will reduce the risk of CVD remains a main focus of future research works. Faeh D.
Homocysteine is an amino acid a building block of protein that is produced in the body. This can increase the risk of blood vessel blockages. A clot inside your blood vessel is called a thrombus.
Given the enormous pervasiveness of the subject, we would like to make some comments.
Homocysteine metabolism showing remethylation and transsulfuration pathways and the epidemiologic factors that may occur at elevated homocysteine levels. Diaz-Arrastia R. Homocysteine and Neurologic Disease. Arch Neurol.
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