File Name: gamification in theory and action a survey .zip
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This article intends to identify and map trends and patterns in gamification research. For this purpose, this article employs a systematic review in which document and content analysis were used. Lexical analysis demonstrated that education, teaching, and learning; engagement, motivation, and behavior change, and gamified designs, are emerging concepts. Keyword analysis revealed that gamification, engagement, and motivation are most frequently used keywords.
Gamification articles are mostly related to the education field. There are many other aligned terms of gamification, such as productivity games, surveillance entertainment, funware, playful design, behavioral games, game layer, and applied gaming; however, gamification is the term that is widely accepted in related literature. Though it was first used for marketing purposes, it has been used in many other fields, including education, health, business, and management.
In other words, the main goal of the gamification is to keep the users, that is to say players, in the game. Gamification was first introduced as a novel idea in ; however, its acceptance and popularity, from onwards, attracted much attention. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.
Gamification was first spotted in the Technology Trigger Cycle in and the Peak of Inflated Expectation Cycle in and , and finally in the Trough of Disillusionment Cycle in It is thought that currently gamification has been maturing, so as to climb onto the Slope of Enlightenment Cycle, where gamification can benefit the enterprise, start to crystallize and become more widely understood, before it reaches the Plateau of Productivity Cycle where mainstream adoption occurs.
In other words, game-based learning and gamification are two intertwined research areas and exploration of one Figure 1. Google Trends for gamification Figure 2. In this regard, this study intends to contribute to the field by examining research on gamification in empirical publications.
The play-mood is one of rapture and enthusiasm, and is sacred or festive in accordance with the occasion. Even though this definition was suggested as long time ago, it reveals the most important aspects of games: gratuitousness, enjoyment, rules, and the absence of a purpose Kickmeier-Rust, For Homo Ludens, there are two basic terms: game and play.
Accordingly, it explains that game and play constitute a continuum, where one side represents paidia playing: unstructured and spontaneous activities: playfulness and other side represents ludus gaming: structured activities with explicit rules: game Caillois, Reviews That Have Holistic Perspectives Hamari, Koivisto, and Sarsa reviewed 24 peer-reviewed empirical papers on gamification published between and Their review revealed that while gamification has positive effects, these effects are dependent on the context in which the gamification is being implemented, as well as on the users using it.
They reported that the most employed methodologies were quantitative, mixed methods and qualitative approaches, respectively. They noted that a great majority of the studies were carried out from an educational perspective.
Thiebes, Lins, and Basten investigated 29 papers published between and to reach a synthesis of gamification mechanics and dynamics. Their research yielded a synthesis of mechanics and dynamics in five clusters: system design, challenges, rewards, social influences and user specifics.
Caponetto, Earp, and Ott analyzed around gamification papers published between and Schlagenhaufer and Amberg investigated 34 papers published in journals and conferences between and They reported that gamification was mostly applied to the field of education.
The most frequent gamification elements in the sampled studies were points, badges, and leaderboards. Accepted as a synonym term in their research, quantitative questionnaires and surveys were typically used as data collection tools.
Dicheva, Dichev, Agre and Angelova examined 34 papers published between and that covered game elements in educational contexts. They reported that the most used gamification design principles in the educational context are visual status, social engagement, freedom of choice, freedom to fail, and rapid feedback, while the most popular game mechanisms are points, badges, and leaderboards. Thirdly, there is a gap between theory and practice — where theory is empirically unexamined and applied work lacks reference to theory — which serves to limit the growth of the field as a whole.
Researchers also reported that while applied gamification research is found across a number of domains, the survey findings suggest that it is largely that of education and to a lesser extent the domains of health and wellness, online communities, crowdsourcing, and sustainability.
They reported that most of the frameworks are based on Human-Focused Design principles, taking into account the person as the main goal of the design. Psychological aspects are very common items of great importance and highly significant in most of the frameworks proposed. Among the reviewed gamification frameworks, only a couple of them focused on a technological-based or goal-based design in contrast to the main human-based design.
It is thought that because gamification was a new concept by , researchers usually preferred publication venues such as conference proceedings because they require shorter publication processes. Highlighting that citation networks are dynamic, they noted that the citation network in was sparse; however, in the citation network began to grow rapidly, and the citation network developed in and They sampled articles published in top journals over between and and found that there is an increasing academic interest in gamification and a wide variety of constructs that were clustered in four main themes: effectiveness, acceptance, engagement and social interactions.
Reviews That Had Specific Focuses Azmi, Iahad, and Ahmad, examined papers published between and on gamification in online collaborative learning for programming courses. In their research, they concluded that gamifying learning activities are an effective solution to encourage students to interact and engage with the learning process. Darejeh and Salim examined 78 papers published between and to explore existing gamification solutions targeted at solving user engagement problems in different categories of software.
They reported that most of the studies focused on educational and social software, which were developed for web or mobile platforms. Ortiz, Chiluiza, and Valcke presented a systematic review of 30 papers published between and on gamification in Higher Education within a STEM context. They reported that computer science courses dominate the STEM field, while areas such as math, chemistry, and science have a minor presence.
Most studies used a combination of gamification elements. These are usually points, badges and leaderboards, and other elements, including challenges, levels, avatar, etc.
They revealed that gamification could have a positive effect on health and wellbeing, especially when applied in a skilled way. There are some issues that are salient in these review studies. First of all, gamification literature has a tendency to focus on education, especially e-learning practices Caponetto et al. Then, gamified design and gamification mechanics, dynamics and components are usually covered in gamification literature Thiebes et al.
Finally, gamification is perceived as a source of motivation, engagement and sustainability. MeTHodoLoGy This section of the study explains research method; sampling, inclusion and exclusion criteria; reliability; limitations, strengths, and significance of the study. Research Method This study employs systematic review to reach a complete view of gamification research. Systematic reviews are also known as research synthesis.
During these processes, this study also benefited from documents analysis and content analysis. In the first stage, where relevant gamification research was identified and described, the study used documents analysis.
Document analysis is a technique that includes approaches such as skimming superficial examination , reading thorough examination , and interpretation Bowen, In this study, document analysis was used to construct a research corpus by skimming and reading identified gamification research. In the second stage, where identified gamification research was examined, the study used content analysis.
Content analysis, which is a technique based on explicit rules of coding Berelson, , can be used to make inferences, interpretations, counting, summarizing, or categorization of the different types of the content Orcher, ; Wilson, In this study, content analysis was used to count and summarize a sheer volume of textual content into meaningful categories.
Sampling, Inclusion and exclusion Criteria The articles were sampled according to the identified inclusion criteria. Multiple databases were used in screening gamification research e.
However, it was found that Google Scholar provided a diverse type of studies books, magazine articles, conference papers etc. Therefore, the researchers first collected articles using defined keywords in Scopus and then conducted discrete inquiries for each year span from to in Google Scholar.
As a result, a total of articles Figure 3 that meet inclusion criteria of the research were sampled for this study. Reliability In the first phase, articles that were included in the research corpus were coded according to preset categories.
After completing the coding process, another researcher recoded the same articles in the second phase. Following these phases, the results were compared and categories that were different from each other were examined again.
The categories that did not match were defined according to examination in the third phase and these categories were only coded when the researchers arrived at a consensus. In the fourth phase, an independent researcher who has experience in systematic reviews and gamification recoded research methodology, model and field categories, calculated inter-rater reliability. Limitations, Strengths, and Significance of the Study The findings of this study are limited to articles published in academic journals.
These articles were selected according to inclusion criteria explained above. In addition to limitations, the strengths of the study lie in the number of the sampled articles.
The previous research that attempted to map research trends examined articles that ranged from 18 to However, this study sampled articles that met the inclusion criteria through an open search and thus offers an overall picture of gamification research. Figure 3. In this regard, this study is significant in terms of identifying the current state of the art in gamification research.
In order to achieve a more holistic snapshot, the research examines gamification studies from multiple perspectives with an aim to reach a complete snapshot of the period from to In addition to identifying trends, it also reveals gaps in gamification research, which is important to improve the field and construct the pillars of gamification research. The rationale to adopt this schema is that the schema covers new emerging methodological approaches as well as traditional ones.
Though it is natural to see such a trend for an emerging field, the dominance of this type of methodology can undermine the gamification field, as it needs empirical findings to improve the field and fortify the pillars of gamification field. It is also noteworthy that the number of this type of articles stops increasing by , while other type of methodologies had gained an increasing momentum by It was also seen that there is a significant increase in the number of quantitative and qualitative research from to Though few in number, Figure 4.
Print Send Add Share. Notes Abstract: This study sought to address a problem of practice by incentivizing job requirements through the addition of achievements in an online web portal. To do this, a workplace analysis was conducted, along with a thorough review of relevant literature. The result was the creation of a framework for designing gamified systems entitled Self-Determined Gamification. Using this framework as a guide, an attempt was made to design achievements with Self-Determination Theory SDT in mind, paying particular attention to organizational goals, equity in attaining achievements, employee autonomy in interacting and engaging with the achievements, and individual goals. With the design of the system as a major focus of this research, determining the success of the design in aligning with SDT considerations was important and this was accomplished through the use of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory IMI Survey within SDT. Additionally, looking at performance indicators along with employee feedback about the achievements provided insight into the overall success of the design and future considerations.
Barata, G. Improving participation and learning with gamification. Barrios, M. Structure and performance assessment in traditional face-to-face and blended learning statistics courses. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, ,
Compared to traditional persuasive technology and health games, gamification is posited to offer several advantages for motivating behaviour change for health and well-being, and increasingly used. Yet little is known about its effectiveness. We aimed to assess the amount and quality of empirical support for the advantages and effectiveness of gamification applied to health and well-being. We identified seven potential advantages of gamification from existing research and conducted a systematic literature review of empirical studies on gamification for health and well-being, assessing quality of evidence, effect type, and application domain.
Gamification refers to using game attributes in a non-gaming context. However, little is known about the concept of gamification and its possible working mechanisms. This review focused on empirical evidence for the effectiveness of gamification approaches and theoretical rationales for applying the chosen game attributes. We systematically searched multiple databases, and included all empirical studies evaluating the use of game attributes in health professions education. Of articles initially identified, 44 met the inclusion criteria.
Metrics details. A total of 86 students participated in the questionnaire in a cross-sectional study. The findings showed average agreement shares for all five gamification user types. The correlations revealed that the six online learning activities were at least significantly connected to one of the five gamification user types, and both person-centered and environment-centered perspectives were displayed.
Published on Authors of this article:. Background: There is little research on the application of gamification to mental health and well-being. Furthermore, usage of gamification-related terminology is inconsistent. Current applications of gamification for health and well-being have also been critiqued for adopting a behaviorist approach that relies on positive reinforcement and extrinsic motivators.
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