File Name: hla and disease association .zip
Determining class I human leukocyte antigens HLA on specimens for those patients who have become refractory to platelet transfusions and identify potential disease association. Human leukocyte antigens HLA are regulators of the immune response. Low-to-medium resolution defines the typing at the antigen level first field.
Variation in the risk and severity of many autoimmune diseases, malignancies and infections is strongly associated with polymorphisms at the HLA class I loci. These genetic associations provide a powerful opportunity for understanding the etiology of human disease. However, given the diverse receptors which are bound by HLA class I molecules, alternative interpretations are possible. Some people are more likely to develop a certain disease, while others are protected in some way. Numerous studies have looked for associations between different versions of genes, known as gene variants, and the occurrence of disease to identify who is at risk. There is one cluster of genes called the HLA genes that is a well-known hotspot for disease associations. These cell-surface proteins regulate the immune system in humans.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Jabbar Published Medicine, Biology Disease markers. The HLA system is deeply involved in susceptibility to a variety of diseases. Relationships between HLA and diseases are of considerable interest and importance, as they provide new tools for studying the inheritance, classification, and pathogenesis of these diseases. Studies on the distribution of HLA antigens in different populations have revealed the existence of racial variation and are therefore a prerequisite for studying HLA and disease associations in different racial groups.
The association of autoimmune diseases with HLA has been known for many decades. To date, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. The recently introduced genome-wide association studies GWAS have suggested that several genes converging in common pathways contribute to the genetic susceptibility in such disorders. The basis of some associations has now been elucidated, particularly in those cases in which exogenous factors are involved. Celiac disease CD is a complex disorder of the small intestine with a strong genetic component, which is caused by an inappropriate immune response to ingested wheat gluten. Gluten peptides are modified by the enzyme transglutaminase and loaded into the groove of specific DQ2 molecules.
Strong association of human leukocyte antigens HLA antigens with the disease has been documented. DNA analyses were done by polymerase chain reaction PCR -single-strand conformation polymorphism and PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods. Purchase this article with an account. Author Affiliations. Alerts User Alerts. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature.
Diseases associated with these genes have strong HLA associations because of their close linkage genetically. It is important to realise that it is wrong to assume.
Metrics details. The major histocompatibility complex MHC is a genetic system of over 70 known genes on the short arm of chromosome 6 and spans about 4 million base pairs of DNA. The high resolution typing of class I and class I MHC genes and the identification of other genes in the region have increased the definition of the genetic basis of immune responses and diseases of unknown etiology such as the autoimmune diseases.
However, in some cases specific inherited HLA antigens have been associated with a variety of autoimmune diseases. While not diagnostic in nature, the presence or absence of specific HLA antigens, in conjunction with clinical findings, aid the physician in making a diagnosis. The drug Abacavir is used as a therapy for treating HIV infection and is linked to an adverse effect which can be severe and potentially life threatening.
Ну вот, на Мидж снова что-то нашло. - Если Стратмор не забил тревогу, то зачем тревожиться. - Да в шифровалке темно как в аду, черт тебя дери. - Может быть, Стратмор решил посмотреть на звезды. - Джабба, мне не до шуток.
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