File Name: indo european language and culture an introduction .zip
Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-European exists. Far more work has gone into reconstructing PIE than any other proto-language , and it is the best understood of all proto-languages of its age.
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Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-European exists. Far more work has gone into reconstructing PIE than any other proto-language , and it is the best understood of all proto-languages of its age. The majority of linguistic work during the 19th century was devoted to the reconstruction of PIE or its daughter proto-languages such as Proto-Germanic and Proto-Indo-Iranian , and many of the modern techniques of linguistic reconstruction such as the comparative method were developed as a result.
According to the prevailing Kurgan hypothesis , the original homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have been in the Pontic—Caspian steppe of eastern Europe.
The linguistic reconstruction of PIE has provided insight into the pastoral culture and patriarchal religion of its speakers. As speakers of Proto-Indo-European became isolated from each other through the Indo-European migrations , the regional dialects of Proto-Indo-European spoken by the various groups diverged, as each dialect underwent shifts in pronunciation the Indo-European sound laws , morphology, and vocabulary.
Over many centuries, these dialects transformed into the known ancient Indo-European languages. From there, further linguistic divergence led to the evolution of their current descendants, the modern Indo-European languages. PIE is believed to have had an elaborate system of morphology that included inflectional suffixes analogous to English life, lives, life's, lives' as well as ablaut vowel alterations, as preserved in English sing, sang, sung, song and accent.
PIE nominals and pronouns had a complex system of declension , and verbs similarly had a complex system of conjugation. The PIE phonology , particles , numerals , and copula are also well-reconstructed. No direct evidence of PIE exists — scholars have reconstructed PIE from its present-day descendants using the comparative method. Since there is a consistent correspondence of the initial consonants that emerges far too frequently to be coincidental, one can assume that these languages stem from a common parent language.
These laws have become so detailed and reliable as to support the Neogrammarian rule: the Indo-European sound laws apply without exception. William Jones , an Anglo-Welsh philologist and puisne judge in Bengal , caused an academic sensation when he postulated the common ancestry of Sanskrit , Latin , and Greek in ,  but he was not the first to state such a hypothesis. In the 16th century, European visitors to the Indian subcontinent became aware of similarities between Indo-Iranian languages and European languages,  and as early as Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn had published a proposal for a proto-language "Scythian" for the following language families: Germanic , Romance , Greek , Baltic , Slavic , Celtic , and Iranian.
In Rasmus Christian Rask elaborated the set of correspondences to include other Indo-European languages, such as Sanskrit and Greek, and the full range of consonants involved. In Jacob Grimm formulated what became known as Grimm's law as a general rule in his Deutsche Grammatik. Grimm showed correlations between the Germanic and other Indo-European languages and demonstrated that sound change systematically transforms all words of a language.
By the early s Indo-Europeanists had developed well-defined descriptions of PIE which scholars still accept today. Later, the discovery of the Anatolian and Tocharian languages added to the corpus of descendant languages.
A subtle new principle won wide acceptance: the laryngeal theory which explained irregularities in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European phonology as the effects of hypothetical sounds which had disappeared from all documented languages, but which were later observed in newly excavated cuneiform tablets in Anatolian.
From the s, knowledge of Anatolian became robust enough to establish its relationship to PIE. Scholars have proposed multiple hypotheses about when, where, and by whom PIE was spoken.
The Kurgan hypothesis , first put forward in by Marija Gimbutas , has become the most popular. Other theories include the Anatolian hypothesis ,  the Armenian hypothesis , the Paleolithic Continuity Theory , and the indigenous Aryans theory. Due to early language contact , there are some lexical similarities between the Proto-Kartvelian and Proto-Indo-European languages.
The Lusitanian language was a marginally attested language spoken in areas near the border between present-day Portugal and Spain. The Venetic and Liburnian languages known from the North Adriatic region are sometimes classified as Italic.
The Paleo-Balkan languages , which occur in or near the Balkan peninsula , do not appear to be members of any of the subfamilies of PIE, but are so poorly attested that proper classification of them is not possible.
Other major languages of this areal grouping included Phrygian , Illyrian , Thracian , and Dacian. Proto-Indo-European phonology has been reconstructed in some detail. Notable features of the most widely accepted but not uncontroversial reconstruction include:. The Proto-Indo-European accent is reconstructed today as having had variable lexical stress, which could appear on any syllable and whose position often varied among different members of a paradigm e.
Stressed syllables received a higher pitch; therefore it is often said that PIE had a pitch accent. The accent is best preserved in Vedic Sanskrit and in the case of nouns Ancient Greek , and indirectly attested in a number of phenomena in other IE languages. To account for mismatches between the accent of Vedic Sanskrit and Ancient Greek, as well as a few other phenomena, a few historical linguists prefer to reconstruct PIE as a tone language where each morpheme had an inherent tone; the sequence of tones in a word then evolved, according to that hypothesis, into the placement of lexical stress in different ways in different IE branches.
Proto-Indo-European roots were affix -lacking morphemes which carried the core lexical meaning of a word and were used to derive related words cf.
Proto-Indo-European was a fusional language , in which inflectional morphemes signalled the grammatical relationships between words. This dependence on inflectional morphemes means that roots in PIE, unlike those in English, were rarely used without affixes.
A root plus a suffix formed a word stem , and a word stem plus a desinence usually an ending formed a word. This variation in vowels occurred both within inflectional morphology e. Categories that PIE distinguished through ablaut were often also identifiable by contrasting endings, but the loss of these endings in some later Indo-European languages has led them to use ablaut alone to identify grammatical categories, as in the Modern English words sing , sang , sung.
Proto-Indo-European nouns are declined for eight or nine cases: . Late Proto-Indo-European had three grammatical genders :. This system is probably derived from an older, simpler, two-gender system, attested in Anatolian languages: common or animate and neuter inanimate gender. The feminine gender only arose in the later period of the language.
All nominals distinguished three numbers :. Proto-Indo-European pronouns are difficult to reconstruct, owing to their variety in later languages.
PIE had personal pronouns in the first and second grammatical person , but not the third person, where demonstrative pronouns were used instead. The personal pronouns had their own unique forms and endings, and some had two distinct stems ; this is most obvious in the first person singular where the two stems are still preserved in English I and me.
There were also two varieties for the accusative, genitive and dative cases, a stressed and an enclitic form. Proto-Indo-European verbs , like the nouns, exhibited a system of ablaut. The most basic categorisation for the Indo-European verb was grammatical aspect. Verbs were classed as:. Verbs have at least four grammatical moods :. Verbs had two grammatical voices :. Verbs had three grammatical persons : first, second and third.
Verbs had three grammatical numbers :. Verbs were also marked by a highly developed system of participles , one for each combination of tense and voice, and an assorted array of verbal nouns and adjectival formations. The following table shows a possible reconstruction of the PIE verb endings from Sihler, which largely represents the current consensus among Indo-Europeanists.
Proto-Indo-European numerals are generally reconstructed as follows:. The postpositions became prepositions in most daughter languages.
Proto-Indo-European employed various means of deriving words from other words, or directly from verb roots. Internal derivation was a process that derived new words through changes in accent and ablaut alone. It was not as productive as external affixing derivation, but is firmly established by the evidence of various later languages.
Possessive or associated adjectives could be created from nouns through internal derivation. Such words could be used directly as adjectives, or they could be turned back into a noun without any change in morphology, indicating someone or something characterised by the adjective. They could also be used as the second element of a compound.
If the first element was a noun, this created an adjective that resembled a present participle in meaning, e. When turned back into nouns, such compounds were Bahuvrihis or semantically resembled agent nouns. In thematic stems, creating a possessive adjective involved shifting the accent one syllable to the right, for example: . The known four classes followed an ordering, in which a derivation would shift the class one to the right: .
The reason for this particular ordering of the classes in derivation is not known. Some examples:. A vrddhi derivation, named after the Sanskrit grammatical term, signified "of, belonging to, descended from".
When upgrading from zero to full grade, the vowel could sometimes be inserted in the "wrong" place, creating a different stem from the original full grade. Examples: . Adjectives with accent on the thematic vowel could be turned into nouns by moving the accent back onto the root. A zero grade root could remain so, or be "upgraded" to full grade like in a vrddhi derivative.
Some examples: . This kind of derivation is likely related to the possessive adjectives, and can be seen as essentially the reverse of it. In the second half of the twentieth century, interest in the topic increased and led to reconstructions of Proto-Indo-European syntax. Since all the early attested IE languages were inflectional, PIE is thought to have relied primarily on morphological markers, rather than word order , to signal syntactic relationships within sentences. The SOV default word order with other orders used to express emphasis e.
The Ridley Scott film Prometheus features an android named David played by Michael Fassbender who learns Proto-Indo-European to communicate with the Engineer, an extraterrestrial whose race may have created humans. David practices PIE by reciting Schleicher's fable. The video game Far Cry Primal , set in around 10, BC, features dialects of an invented language based partly on PIE, intended to be its fictional predecessor.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Peoples and societies. Religion and mythology. Indo-European studies. Scholars Marija Gimbutas J. Main article: Indo-European languages. Main article: Proto-Indo-European phonology. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it.
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Indo-European languages , family of languages spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of Southwest and South Asia. The term Indo-Hittite is used by scholars who believe that Hittite and the other Anatolian languages are not just one branch of Indo-European but rather a branch coordinate with all the rest put together; thus, Indo-Hittite has been used for a family consisting of Indo-European proper plus Anatolian. As long as this view is neither definitively proved nor disproved, it is convenient to keep the traditional use of the term Indo-European. The well-attested languages of the Indo-European family fall fairly neatly into the 10 main branches listed below; these are arranged according to the age of their oldest sizable texts. Now extinct, Anatolian languages were spoken during the 1st and 2nd millennia bce in what is presently Asian Turkey and northern Syria. By far the best-known Anatolian language is Hittite , the official language of the Hittite empire, which flourished in the 2nd millennium. Very few Hittite texts were known before , and their interpretation as Indo-European was not generally accepted until after ; the integration of Hittite data into Indo-European comparative grammar was, therefore, one of the principal developments of Indo-European studies in the 20th century.
Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction provides a comprehensive overview of comparative Indo-European linguistics and the branches of the Indo-European language family, covering both linguistic and cultural material. Fills aMoreIndo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction provides a comprehensive overview of comparative Indo-European linguistics and the branches of the Indo-European language family, covering both linguistic and cultural material. Fills a long-present gap in the literature of Indo-European studies. Designed for use in courses, with exercises and suggestions for further reading included in each chapter. Discusses linguistic and cultural developments for each branch of the Indo-European language family.
Коммандера удивил ее вопрос. - Нет. Я же объяснил тебе, что он зашифрован. Сьюзан, в свою очередь, удивил ответ шефа. - Но ведь у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ, почему бы его не расшифровать? - Но, увидев выражение лица Стратмора, она поняла, что правила игры изменились.
Не несет ответственности? - Глаза Стратмора расширились от изумления. - Некто шантажирует АНБ и через несколько дней умирает - и мы не несем ответственности. Готов поспорить на любую сумму, что у партнера Танкадо будет иное мнение.
Компьютер висел уже почти двадцать часов. Она, разумеется, знала, что были и другие программы, над которыми он работал так долго, программы, создать которые было куда легче, чем нераскрываемый алгоритм.
Если же нет, то позвони электрикам. - Джабба, дело очень серьезное. У меня чутье. У нее чутье.
Ты в опасности. Казалось, она его не слышала. Хейл понимал, что говорит полную ерунду, потому что Стратмор никогда не причинит ей вреда, и она это отлично знает. Хейл вгляделся в темноту, выискивая глазами место, где прятался Стратмор.
Она побледнела и прошептала: - О Боже… Стратмор утвердительно кивнул, зная, что она догадалась. - Он целый год хвастался, что разрабатывает алгоритм, непробиваемый для грубой силы. - Н-но… - Сьюзан запнулась, но тут же продолжила: - Я была уверена, что он блефует.
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