File Name: guidet to fire alarm wiring and box installation .zip
A fire alarm system is a mechanism of different interconnected devises and components used to alert us in case of emergency especially fire to protect the staff and general public by taking appropriate actions. Fire alarm system is the combination of different components such as smoke detector, heat detector, carbon monoxide detector, multi sensor detector, call points, sounders, bells, relay module, repeater, annunciator, fire control panel and other related and optional security devices designed for fire alarm control system. Like a CPU central processing unit in a computer system, the fire alarm control panel is the brain of fire alarm system which sends a status indication and notification to the connected detectors and sounders in case of manual or automatic operation. Fire alarm systems are wired in industrial factories, offices, public buildings and nowadays even in homes.
A fire alarm system is a mechanism of different interconnected devises and components used to alert us in case of emergency especially fire to protect the staff and general public by taking appropriate actions.
Fire alarm system is the combination of different components such as smoke detector, heat detector, carbon monoxide detector, multi sensor detector, call points, sounders, bells, relay module, repeater, annunciator, fire control panel and other related and optional security devices designed for fire alarm control system.
Like a CPU central processing unit in a computer system, the fire alarm control panel is the brain of fire alarm system which sends a status indication and notification to the connected detectors and sounders in case of manual or automatic operation. Fire alarm systems are wired in industrial factories, offices, public buildings and nowadays even in homes.
Different types of fire alarm system such as conventional, addressable, intelligent and smart wireless designs are used for the same purpose i. A smart fire control system is also connected to the fire brigade and related emergency personnel through remote control via control panel. The following tutorial will explain the different fire alarm system and their wiring diagrams and connection.
There are multiple detectors used in a fire alarm system including the basic call point manual break glass unit and smart multi sensors detector. The fire detection devices can be categorized as follow. Smoke detectors can be categorized as follow based on design and working principles. Ionization Smoke detectors work based on lowering the current flow through the inside chamber due to ionization which leads to initiate the alarm.
There are two chambers in a typical ionization smoke detector. The first chamber is used to compensate the changes in ambient temperature, pressure or humidity while, there are alpha particles radioactive material in second chamber which is used to ionize the passing air in the chamber where current flows between two electrodes.
In case of fire when smoke enters the chamber, the current flow between two electrodes reduced due to ionize air. The drop in the current flow is used to trigger the sounder and alarm circuit. When smoke enters the chamber, it distorts the chamber environment which leads to scatter the light and fall on the surface of photocell.
This effect is used to imitate and trigger the alarm system. Light obscuring smoke detectors work based on measuring the amount of light falling on the surface of a photocell. Inside the light obscuring smoke detector chamber, the light source and photocell are positioned at fixed distance.
When the smoke interferes the light beam from the light source to the photocell, it measures the amount of light it receives from the light source. This variation in the output receiving by photocell is used to trigger the alarm circuit.
Hear detectors work based on the rate of change in temperature or a specific value of a fixed temperature rate. In case of heat rise to the pre-set value, the eutectic alloy inside the heat detector which is heat sensitive to the specific temperature turns from a solid to the liquid. The process is same like the working of a fuse where fuse element melts when needed.
The same process will trigger the alarm circuit in case fire. Carbon monoxide detector is also known as CO detector.
It is an electronic device which contains on different types of sensors used to measure and sense the amount of carbon monoxide gas in the air. When the level of carbon monoxide it is a poisonous gas produced by combustion crosses the specified limit, it indicates and triggers the fire alarm system. The electrochemical cell inside the carbon monoxide detector only sense and measure the amount of CO gas and not other combustion gases like smoke etc.
Keep in mind that the carbon monoxide detectors designed for fire alarm system are more sensitive with quick response as compared to the CO detectors used in homes for CO protection in case of incomplete combustion process in appliances such as boilers etc.
The multi sensor detector also known as multi-criteria alarm is a sensitive device which combines the input signal from both heat and optical sensors and used for wide range of fires with lower rate of unwanted false alarms. It can be used to detect optical, heat, CO and fires as it has the ability to detects multiple signals and send the identification value to the control panel for further appropriate action. Hence, an intelligent multi-sensors alarm can be used for accurate and verified correct operation.
A fire alarm manual call point also known as break glass point is a device which is used to trigger the alarm circuit by breaking the glass and pressing a frangible element in case of emergency or fire. Call points are installed at 1. The maximum length between two call points is 30 meters and installed on the entry floor landing of stair cases, exit routes and at all exits to the open air. Following are the different types of fire alarm systems with wiring and connection diagrams. Lets discus each one in details as follow:.
This is the basic fire alarm system used in household wiring. A smoke or heat detector can be installed to the existing or new home wiring. The detectors can be directly connected to the DB distribution board or an existing wiring like outlet. After installation, put the battery and switch on the main breaker to check if it works properly. In a conventional fire alarm system, all devices such as detectors, sounders and call points are connected to the control panel through separate wire or cable instead of shared one.
In other words, the first end of the wire is connected to the detectors and second one to the control panel. In a typical conventional fire alarm system, detectors, sounder and call points are installed and divided into different zones i. Zone 1 for basement, Zone 2 for ground floor, Zone 3 for first floor etc.
This way, it is easy to identify the exact affecting area to the control room, building management and fire brigade. In other words, the more numbers of zones, the more accurate locating the trigger and fire location. In an addressable fire alarm system, all the devices such as detectors, call points and alarm bells are connected in a loop system to the fire addressable control panel and each device has an address to tell about their location.
This way, it is very easy to find the exact location of the device which has been triggered in the connected circuitry. The basic idea behind the loop system is that in case of short circuit fault, only a small portion of the system affected while the rest will work properly with the help of isolation module connected in the loop.
In a single loop, up to 99 devices may be connected and can be extended up to 3. The main purpose of addressable fire system is same as conventional fire system expect the wiring connection and DIP Dual In-Line Package switches for an address or a set of address showing the exact location of triggered component on main addressable fire control panel screen.
Addressable is most accurate but costly as compared to conventional system while both are not smart as compared to intelligent fire system which show the exact reason behind the triggered device if it is a fault, pre-alarm or fire and extinguish them quickly. In an intelligent fire alarm system, each device has the ability to analyze the environment around it and communicate the central control panel to take further action s in case of fault, fire or the device needs cleaning or scheduled maintenance of the detectors.
As compared to the traditional fire alarm systems, they only provide single signal of info i. This misleading information can affect different phenomena such as reporting, omission etc. Similarly to the addressable fire control system, the devices are connected in loops in intelligent system which is available in two, four and eight loops system. A single loop can be extended up to 3. This way, a large area can be controlled and monitored from single control panel. The main purpose of intelligent fire alarm system is to prevent the occurrence false alarms which need extra complexity due to high accurate sensors with incorporate computers system and algorithms.
This way, it is more complex and expensive as compared to the traditional conventional and addressable fire detection systems. Click image to enlarge. In a wireless fire alarm system, all the detectors and related devices are interconnected remotely through radio communication to the fire control panel. In the wireless fire alarm system, a radio signal is transmitted from the detector such as heat detector or call point to the central fire alarm system to activate the alarm circuit.
As wireless fire detection system is less costly due to labor costs and cable wiring with quick installation without shutting down the building areas for hours, but the hardware are very expensive even more in case of batteries replacement and maintenance.
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When I was a licensed electrical contractor in the Phoenix area in the s and '80s, I specialized in design-build fire alarm systems with about 50 percent of my business devoted to fire alarms. I mention Article since many of the Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 control circuits are associated with fire alarm systems, such as circuits for fire damper controls and fan shutdown, building system safety functions, and other control circuits powered by and controlled by the fire alarm system. I recently received a question about a fire alarm system installation where I had to provide a detailed explanation on the requirements for splice boxes for smoke detectors and other related fire alarm devices. Many electricians, ECs, and electrical inspectors may have the same problem involving these installations as the person who emailed me, so coverage of these requirements may be worthwhile. Article covers two different fire alarm circuits. Abbreviations can be difficult to understand and not easily remembered, so in this article, I write them out; however, they are worth knowing.
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By William Bill Burr. The code is a comprehensive document. Sometimes it can seem quite daunting to quickly find the information you need. This series of articles provides a guide to help users find their way through this critical document.
The Fire Alarm System — Including but not limited to the fire control panel, annunciators, and initiating and supervisory devices shall be of an approved typed and shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of the Massachusetts State Building Code and NFPA Fire Protection Construction Documents — When the Massachusetts State Building Code requires a fire alarm system; Fire Protection Construction Documents shall show the location and number of all alarm initiating devices, alarm notification appliances, proposed zoning, and a complete sequence of operation for the system. Approval — All devices, combinations of devices, appliances and equipment shall be approved for the fire protective signaling purpose for which such equipment was used. Where Required — A fire protective signaling system shall be installed and maintained in full operating condition in these Amherst College locations, as described in Massachusetts Building Code. These include, but are not limited to:.
This comes down to fitting a suitable alarm in an appropriate location, and ensuring compliance with legislation and recommended best practice. This should therefore be considered an authority for private and social housing providers. BS pt 6 was revised in early , for a simplified guide advising the latest revisions, download our guide below:. Also ensure the alarm carries a British or European approval mark, such as a Kitemark. Also, consider its implementation; alarms can be powered by battery or mains, or a combination of both typically with a battery as a backup for mains power. Categorically, there are four main types of alarm on the market, each with separate installation requirements:. See why here.
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