File Name: synthetic polymers and their uses .zip
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers. From the utility point of view, they can be classified into four main categories: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, and synthetic fibers. Thermoplastics are a type of polymer that become moldable and malleable past a certain temperature, and they solidify upon cooling.
Polymer , any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins , cellulose , and nucleic acids.
Moreover, they constitute the basis of such minerals as diamond , quartz , and feldspar and such man-made materials as concrete , glass , paper , plastics , and rubbers. The word polymer designates an unspecified number of monomer units. When the number of monomers is very large, the compound is sometimes called a high polymer. Polymers are not restricted to monomers of the same chemical composition or molecular weight and structure.
Some natural polymers are composed of one kind of monomer. Most natural and synthetic polymers, however, are made up of two or more different types of monomers; such polymers are known as copolymers.
Organic polymers play a crucial role in living things, providing basic structural materials and participating in vital life processes.
For example, the solid parts of all plants are made up of polymers. These include cellulose, lignin , and various resins. Cellulose is a polysaccharide , a polymer that is composed of sugar molecules. Lignin consists of a complicated three-dimensional network of polymers. Wood resins are polymers of a simple hydrocarbon, isoprene.
Another familiar isoprene polymer is rubber. Other important natural polymers include the proteins, which are polymers of amino acids , and the nucleic acids , which are polymers of nucleotides —complex molecules composed of nitrogen-containing bases, sugars, and phosphoric acid. The nucleic acids carry genetic information in the cell.
Starches , important sources of food energy derived from plants, are natural polymers composed of glucose. Many inorganic polymers also are found in nature, including diamond and graphite. Both are composed of carbon. In diamond, carbon atoms are linked in a three-dimensional network that gives the material its hardness.
Synthetic polymers are produced in different types of reactions. Many simple hydrocarbons , such as ethylene and propylene , can be transformed into polymers by adding one monomer after another to the growing chain.
Polyethylene , composed of repeating ethylene monomers, is an addition polymer. It may have as many as 10, monomers joined in long coiled chains. Polyethylene is crystalline, translucent, and thermoplastic—i. It is used for coatings, packaging, molded parts, and the manufacture of bottles and containers. Polypropylene is also crystalline and thermoplastic but is harder than polyethylene. Its molecules may consist of from 50, to , monomers. This compound is used in the textile industry and to make molded objects.
Other addition polymers include polybutadiene, polyisoprene , and polychloroprene , which are all important in the manufacture of synthetic rubbers. Some polymers, such as polystyrene , are glassy and transparent at room temperature, as well as being thermoplastic.
Polystyrene can be coloured any shade and is used in the manufacture of toys and other plastic objects. If one hydrogen atom in ethylene is replaced by a chlorine atom, vinyl chloride is produced. This polymerizes to polyvinyl chloride PVC , a colourless, hard, tough, thermoplastic material that can be manufactured in a number of forms, including foams, films, and fibres.
Vinyl acetate , produced by the reaction of ethylene and acetic acid , polymerizes to amorphous , soft resins used as coatings and adhesives. It copolymerizes with vinyl chloride to produce a large family of thermoplastic materials. Many important polymers have oxygen or nitrogen atoms, along with those of carbon, in the backbone chain. Among such macromolecular materials with oxygen atoms are polyacetals. The simplest polyacetal is polyformaldehyde.
It has a high melting point and is crystalline and resistant to abrasion and the action of solvents. Acetal resins are more like metal than are any other plastics and are used in the manufacture of machine parts such as gears and bearings. A linear polymer characterized by a repetition of ester groups along the backbone chain is called a polyester.
Open-chain polyesters are colourless, crystalline, thermoplastic materials. Those with high molecular weights 10, to 15, molecules are employed in the manufacture of films, molded objects, and fibres such as Dacron. The polyamides include the naturally occurring proteins casein , found in milk , and zein, found in corn maize , from which plastics, fibres, adhesives, and coatings are made.
Among the synthetic polyamides are the urea-formaldehyde resins, which are thermosetting. They are used to produce molded objects and as adhesives and coatings for textiles and paper. Also important are the polyamide resins known as nylons. They are strong, resistant to heat and abrasion, noncombustible, and nontoxic, and they can be coloured. Their best-known use is as textile fibres, but they have many other applications.
Another important family of synthetic organic polymers is formed of linear repetitions of the urethane group. Polyurethanes are employed in making elastomeric fibres known as spandex and in the production of coating bases and soft and rigid foams. A different class of polymers are the mixed organic-inorganic compounds.
The most important representatives of this polymer family are the silicones. Their backbone consists of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with organic groups attached to each of the silicon atoms. Silicones with low molecular weight are oils and greases. Higher-molecular-weight species are versatile elastic materials that remain soft and rubbery at very low temperatures.
They are also relatively stable at high temperatures. Fluorocarbon-containing polymers, known as fluoropolymers, are made up of carbon—fluorine bonds, which are highly stable and render the compound resistant to solvents. The nature of carbon—fluorine bonding further imparts a nonstick quality to fluoropolymers; this is most widely evident in the polytetrafluoroethylene PFTE Teflon. Polymer Article Media Additional Info.
Home Science Chemistry Polymer chemistry. Print Cite verified Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.
External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History. Industrial polymers are synthesized from simple compounds joined together to form long chains. For example, polyvinyl chloride is an industrial homopolymer synthesized from repeating units of vinyl chloride.
Read More on This Topic. The formation of polymers, long-chain molecules made of repeating units of monomers the essential building blocks mentioned above , is Latex tapped from a rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis in Malaysia.
Portion of polynucleotide chain of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA. The inset shows the corresponding pentose sugar and pyrimidine base in ribonucleic acid RNA. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn about manufacturing diamonds for use in research. Silicone caulk being dispensed from a caulking gun.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The formation of polymers, long-chain molecules made of repeating units of monomers the essential building blocks mentioned above , is a far more difficult experimental problem than the formation of monomers. Polymer ization reactions tend to be dehydrations.
A molecule of water is lost in the formation…. The simple substance ethylene is a gas composed of molecules with the formula CH 2 CH 2. Under certain conditions, many ethylene molecules will join together to form a long chain called polyethylene, with the formula CH 2 CH 2 n , where n is a variable but large number.
A highly significant proportion of these basic petrochemicals is converted into plastics, synthetic rubbers, and synthetic fibres. Together these materials are known as polymers, because their molecules are high-molecular-weight compounds made up of repeated structural units that have combined chemically.
The major products…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
Polymers are made up of various molecules that combine together to form long chains. Polymers usually have high melting and boiling points like PVC poly vinyl chloride , polystyrene, cellulose. These simple molecules which bind to form polymers are known as monomers. Monomers are the building blocks of more complex molecules, called polymers. Therefore, we can say that a monomer is a molecule that forms the basic unit for polymers and they bind with other monomers to form a repeating chain molecule.
Request PDF | Synthetic Polymers | This chapter provides a such as bone in order to engineer scaffolds suitable for different applications.
They have always made life easier and more convenient in hundreds of different ways, but they also have a downside.
Верно… - Стратмор задумался. - На какое-то время. - Что это. Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит.
- Хотела это сделать, но она совсем еще ребенок, да и денег у нее не .
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *