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Nutrition And Food Safety Pdf

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Metrics details. Scenarios are a well-established methodology used in foresight. In this paper a three-phased process is described to maximise relevance for policy-making of a set of scenarios. In the second step the scenarios were analysed by stakeholders to identify the scenario-specific challenge profiles in terms of food safety and nutrition. Policy and regulatory responses were formulated towards improving the fitness of the EU food framework for the future. The pertinence and realism of this exercise generated questions about how the role of the EU policy maker in this area could develop.

To answer this question, in a third step, a new tailor-made approach was developed, allowing exploring and testing policy-making under diverse circumstances. Both approaches, each on their own, demonstrated the power of scenarios for simulating realistic policy circumstances.

In combination, the process allowed to examine, in systemic way, different aspects of future policies and fostering a more forward-looking mind-set to inform practical policy-making. Food, in recent years, has seen a come-back to the top of the political agendas world-wide.

While many see the sustainable production of sufficient food as a major challenge [ 2 , 3 ], food safety and nutrition in terms of healthy diets are indispensable elements of food security. Furthermore, good nutrition has been identified as a prerequisite to meet 12 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals, Footnote 1 and unhealthy diets are contributing as one of the main, modifiable risk factors to the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases. Footnote 2. General principles and requirements are laid down in the General Food Law [ 5 ]; many additional regulations cover specific aspects such as food contact materials, food additives etc.

Although European citizens enjoy a high level of food safety, recent European and global food safety incidents show that it cannot be taken for granted e. An EU regulatory framework covering food labelling and marketing of food products is in place to enable informed food choices. Furthermore, non-legal approaches are pursued, e. The EU regularly carries out assessments of existing regulatory frameworks to make sure they are fit for purpose. Footnote 4 This is in essence a backwards looking assessment to answer the question if the regulatory framework worked in the recent past.

To have a framework in place that is able to deal with new challenges and opportunities this approach needs to be complemented with a forward looking exercise considering the possible long-term evolution of relevant trends and stakeholders and resulting implications. There exist several studies analysing possible implications for the capacity to produce enough food, while food safety and nutrition are less or not at all covered, although these are recognised as important characteristics of food security.

Furthermore, the food system involves many actors, from e. Therefore, any consideration of future developments and challenges need to be inclusive in terms of different relevant expertise and perspectives. Foresight provides for a systematic, inclusive and systemic approach to analyse alternative future developments and their implications.

This initiative, as will be described in the paper, evolved step by step. As a first step, a scoping study was commissioned by DG SANTE which identified relevant drivers of change and developed and analysed driver-specific-scenarios [ 9 ].

Recognising the need for more comprehensive scenarios, this exercise was followed up by an extensive foresight study carried out by the JRC, involving a broad range of stakeholders. Based on the scenarios and the discussions in the context of the study on the future food safety and nutrition policy in the EU, the question emerged if the role of the policy maker might also face some changes in the future. This paper will describe how we developed and used scenarios to support these different aspects of EU food policies.

The comprehensive outcomes of the foresight study, detailing the scenarios and the results of their analysis can be found in the respective JRC report [ 10 ]. Scenario building is a well-established foresight methodology [ 11 , 12 ]. The scenarios, to be useful for answering the question on future preparedness of the EU legal framework on food safety and nutrition, needed to fulfil, apart from the basic criteria plausibility, consistency, and diversity, Footnote 6 the following requirements:.

They need to be comprehensive, i. They need to be exploratory, i. They need to be challenging in terms of food safety and nutrition to be useful for future-proofing the regulatory framework. This means that positive scenarios in this sense were not used for the study. The scenario development was based on a set of nine drivers Global trade, EU economic growth, agro-food chain structure, technology update, social cohesion, food values, climate change, depletion if natural resources, and world population growth derived from the scoping study [ 9 ] that were analysed to identify possible directions of future development.

In an internal workshop with JRC experts with different academic backgrounds and expertise, including but not limited to food safety and nutrition, the possible driver developments were explored regarding their implications for food safety and nutrition. The remaining seven drivers were combined in a way that resulted in meaningful scenarios.

A common background pressure on the food system was generated by assuming for all scenarios a similar, challenging development for environmental conditions climate change and natural resource depletion and food demand growing world population. It was also assumed that the EU and its institutions as well as the current regulatory food-related infrastructure would remain in place. The result of this exercise were four scenarios which were further developed by the project team and discussed, amended and agreed at a workshop by a group of ca.

Global food : globalised food chains and a further concentrated global food industry with a pre-dominance of highly processed convenience food. Regional food : trade fragmentation, the EU moves towards a circular, self-sufficient economy with citizens actively involved in food production and high food prices. Partnership food : a non-competitive EU teams up with an economically stronger partner while facing brain-drain and loss of technological know-how with predominance of highly processed convenience food.

Pharma food : the striving EU food industry is the global market leader in functional and pharmaceutical food, catering to the demand of personalised diets of very health aware, ageing citizens.

Once the scenarios had been agreed, the workshop participants were asked to identify scenario-specific challenges for food safety and nutrition. In this process, 29 challenges were identified for the four scenarios, of which eight were shared by all scenarios e. The results provided the project team with a rich challenge profile for each scenario.

The four challenge profiles were further elaborated based on scientific literature as they were going to be used in a follow-up workshop. For this second workshop, the profile of participants was enlarged to include persons with specific expertise in the EU food regulatory framework and its application.

Participants were split in scenario-specific sub-groups and asked to prioritise the challenges identified in the first workshop according to importance. The objective was to be able to focus on the top six challenges per scenario for the rest of the workshop.

The next task was to develop a narrative around this prioritised set of scenario-specific challenges, weaving them into the scenario context. This exercise included an element of role play which contributed to the discussions being constructive and anchored in the future.

A similar output was achieved for the other three scenarios. These results were further analysed and developed by the project team and are presented in the final report of the study [ 10 ]. Assessing the ability of the current EU food safety and nutrition regulatory framework to deal with possible future challenges and identifying its potential needs for evolution is essential.

There might also be implications for the future role of EU policy makers, which against the background of any institutional strategies, are useful to explore. How are the policy-making demands likely to evolve under these conditions? Answering this question in sufficient depth required the development of a new, tailor-made approach. As the previous scenario-based process had been perceived as delivering valuable results, also the reflection on the future role of the policy maker should be connected to these scenarios and their implicit challenges to food safety and nutrition.

Furthermore, the SES allowed the EU food policy maker to play its policy role in realistic new circumstances while being confronted with the behaviour of its main stakeholders industry and consumers under the different constraints created by the contrasting scenarios.

The SES operates by engaging four participants to develop and take up roles to chart their own courses towards their long-term objectives.

This is taking place under the judgement of a fifth person representing the public. In the course of a 3-h session, participants do this journey twice within contrasting scenarios, holding the same roles and pursuing the same objectives, but having scenario-specific resources determining the room for manoeuvre.

This double journey allows participants to compare and contrast situations and potential solutions, leading to fruitful strategic discussions. As the SES starts its journeys in the present and leads participants towards the scenario endpoints in three time steps, an important part of the preparation work was to write the stories of how each of the scenarios could come about in three time steps.

The different roles small and multinational food companies, consumer organisation and EU food policy maker were taken by experienced professionals holding similar roles in real life. The chosen theme for the session was food innovation.

The session was organised with two teams in parallel to be able to explore all four scenarios at the same time.

The session was followed by a plenary debriefing with all participants. The purpose of this discussion was to capture the learnings and impressions from participants as well as to reflect on the process [ 14 ]. To illustrate how the SES session worked, the scenario exploration of two scenarios, Global food and Regional food , is described below. Its vision for is to ensure safe, nutritious, affordable food while ensuring that the food industry strives and is resource-efficient.

Its long-term vision is to remain resilient and grow while continuing to provide safe, nutritious, sustainable food ingredients to feed a growing world population. Small food company: a small cheese producer. Its long-term vision is to survive remain competitive by meeting consumer demands, and bringing new products on the market using its regional and traditional way of production. Civil society organisation: an EU consumer organisation.

With current trends continuing in terms of environment, social inequalities and industry concentration, the multinational company starts a heavy long-term investment plan to develop new sources for raw materials, while the EU policy maker initiates and puts its weight behind EU level discussions on how to reduce food waste.

Both actions have a positive echo in the public and bear some fruits. The small cheese producer feels the stronger competition and invests to modernise its infrastructure.

This helps it survive the coming years. The EU consumer organisation cautiously moves into digital support tools for consumers to help them find their way towards value for money products. This is taken up in some countries. The advance of new technologies and the steady trend towards more convenience food leads the multinational ingredient producer to seek closer collaboration with food companies rooted in local markets and offer collaboration to SMEs.

Unfortunately the collaboration with the cheese producer does not lead to the products that consumers like. Meanwhile the policy maker and the consumer organisation see the need to support consumers in their choice for quality food. The consumer organisation invests in developing a quality label that fails to be taken up by industry and has little follow up with consumers.

The EU policy maker considers legislation to oblige industry to provide some quality versions of convenience food. This has limited success since consumers cannot be forced to buy these products. EU consumers move further towards low-cost convenience food and the cheese producer decides to go with the tide, move away from traditional products and produce new, cheaper and tastier products. This helps the company to survive.

The EU policy maker wants to combat the lack of affordable fresh produce; it pushes for taxes on the large convenience-food producers to increase public budgets and support specifically primary production and fresh produce. This move is supported by the multinational company that sees this as an opportunity to get more attention and market shares for their healthy ingredient products that had not been very successful in the past.

The consumer organisation still tries to develop tools to better inform consumers. However, given the framework conditions, these do not take off. In the end, the multinational company does not achieve its long-term vision but stays in the game due to collaborations with the other stakeholders.

The policy maker has some influence due to active involvement in the market with heavy legislation.

Food safety

Food safety is used as a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation , and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness. The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illnesses resulting from the ingestion of a common food is known as a food-borne disease outbreak. In this way food safety often overlaps with food defense to prevent harm to consumers. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling , food hygiene , food additives and pesticide residues , as well as policies on biotechnology and food and guidelines for the management of governmental import and export inspection and certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer practices, the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Food can transmit pathogens which can result in the illness or death of the person or other animals.

nutrition and food safety pdf

Food Safety and Human Health

Despite advances in hygiene, food treatment, and food processing, diseases caused by foodborne pathogens continue to constitute a worldwide public health concern. Ensuring food safety to protect public health remains a significant challenge in both developing and developed nations. Food Safety and Human Health provides a framework to manage food safety risks and assure a safe food system. Political, economic, and ecological changes have led to the re-emergence of many foodborne pathogens.

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Five Steps for Food-Safe Taste Testing

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IDPH is also responsible for the regulation and enforcement. Each site participating in the National School Lunch or School Breakfast Program must obtain two food safety inspections annually for each site where food is prepared or served. SFAs that have not received a food sanitation inspection several months into the school year i. The content on this page may no longer be in effect. Skip to content. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The problems have grown all too familiar. Too many Americans are overweight or obese. Too many children do not eat healthy meals at school.

PDF | On Apr 4, , Lewis Ziska and others published Ch. 7: Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution | Find, read and cite all the research you.

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Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Find printable handouts and fact sheets that can be used for health fairs, classes, and other food or nutrition-related events. This brochure helps you to make every bite count with simple tips that set you on a path to healthy eating. These materials are in the public domain. Want your kids to learn how to build a healthy meal?

Metrics details. Scenarios are a well-established methodology used in foresight. In this paper a three-phased process is described to maximise relevance for policy-making of a set of scenarios. In the second step the scenarios were analysed by stakeholders to identify the scenario-specific challenge profiles in terms of food safety and nutrition. Policy and regulatory responses were formulated towards improving the fitness of the EU food framework for the future. The pertinence and realism of this exercise generated questions about how the role of the EU policy maker in this area could develop.

To achieve this, effective risk management based on sound science and unbiased information is required by all stakeholders, including the food industry, governments and consumers themselves. In addition, the globalization of the food supply requires the harmonization of policies and standards based on a common understanding of food safety among authorities in countries around the world. With some chapters, the Encyclopedia of Food Safety provides unbiased and concise overviews which form in total a comprehensive coverage of a broad range of food safety topics, which may be grouped under the following general categories: History and basic sciences that support food safety; Foodborne diseases, including surveillance and investigation; Foodborne hazards, including microbiological and chemical agents; Substances added to food, both directly and indirectly; Food technologies, including the latest developments; Food commodities, including their potential hazards and controls; Food safety management systems, including their elements and the roles of stakeholders. The Encyclopedia provides a platform for experts from the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment to share and learn from state-of-the art expertise with the rest of the food safety community. If you want to expand your knowledge over the whole field of food safety you can look no further than dipping into this encyclopedia. All of what is presently known in this domain can be found in this comprehensive work.

Authors transfer all rights to the journal upon publication. AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. Abstract Contaminated food continues to cause numerous devastating outbreaks in the African Region.

Subscription price IJFSNPH contributes to the improvement of public health through quality research and a better understanding of the science involved in food safety, nutrition and dietetics, food studies, food and restaurant management. To promote better health for all, this initiative aims to broaden the context of public health and health equity, integrate the study of these various disciplines, and foster knowledge transfer on key issues regarding the pivotal role of food safety, nutrition and health equity in influencing health outcomes. The objectives of IJFSNPH are to establish an effective channel of communication between food scientists, nutritionists, public health professionals, food producers, food marketers, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental agencies, and others concerned with the food safety, nutrition and public health dimensions.

National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Вопрос национальной безопасности. За дверью послышалось движение, раздались голоса. Он постучал. Послышался голос с сильным немецким акцентом: - Ja. Беккер молчал.

 Что-то затевается, - заявила Мидж.  - И я намерена узнать, что. ГЛАВА 49 Беккер с трудом поднялся и рухнул на пустое сиденье. - Ну и полет, придурок, - издевательски хмыкнул парень с тремя косичками.


  1. Resrewima

    14.12.2020 at 13:51

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