File Name: importance of sanitation and hygiene .zip
In this study session you will be introduced to the public health importance of various local institutions, such as schools, prisons, offices, clinics, Health Posts, churches and mosques. We will consider the essential hygiene requirements for these establishments and enable you to relate this to your own locality. In addition, this session introduces you to planning and making follow-up assessments of the hygiene status of these institutions.
SAQ 5. Public institutions are those that provide social, educational and religious public services to the general population. They include schools, nursery homes, clinics, Health Posts, prisons, jails, churches and mosques. You may have some or all of these in your locality. These are the focus of institutional hygiene. However, there are other sectors of service such as shopping centres, mill houses, slaughterhouses and traditional markets that may also require your attention.
Children attending school, patients attending Health Posts and other people seeking services are vulnerable to various diseases, accidents and stresses. Protecting the health of all these people is essential from a public health point of view. The promotion of basic hygiene is very important in these local institutions. The public health importance of local institutions is considered to be an extension of healthful housing.
These institutions are places where people spend much of their time outside their home. The satisfaction of their physiological and psychological needs, and protection against infections and accidents, depend on the way hygiene is promoted in these local institutions. It is possible for these institutions to be the focal point for epidemic diseases such as diarrhoea and measles due to poor hygiene.
When we say schools, we mean kindergartens, primary schools first and second cycle , and high schools, all of which could be present in your locality Figure 5. School children spend about one third of their time either in schools or doing school assignments, during which time they may be exposed to a variety of physical, social and psychological harm.
Schools provide an ideal opportunity to detect poor hygiene practice by children. The water supply and sanitation conditions of schools have become a public health concern in recent years. A Ministry of Health report in about school hygiene in Ethiopia indicated that the majority of surveyed primary schools did not have access to drinking water sources or adequate sanitation facilities for handwashing and excreta disposal.
School dropouts are observed among female students due to a lack of latrines with facilities for menstrual hygiene. The report also found that the hygiene knowledge of the prevention of communicable diseases was poorly understood by students.
Other studies in Ethiopia among school children indicate that upper respiratory infections, skin infections, abdominal discomfort, eye infections, gastro-enteritis diarrhoea and tonsillitis are the commonest ailments for school clinic visits. Helminthic infections such as ascariasis and hookworm are prevalent because of the prevailing poor personal hygiene and waste management in the school and home environment. The provision of school hygiene and sanitation ensures the rights of students to acceptable hygiene practices, safe water supply, latrines and a healthy school environment in general.
The impact could have further beneficial effects, for example:. You have been a school student at some time in the past. What were the components of school health services in your time? You might have various memories of events. Your classroom teacher might have checked your personal hygiene.
You might have learned about trachoma and face washing in science class. Someone might have reminded you to use the latrine and wash your hands afterwards. All schools should be aware of the importance of school hygiene and sanitation for their students. The implementation of policy statements must take into account the availability of human resources and materials.
Teaching students about health focuses mainly on the dissemination of hygiene information aimed at changing or modifying their behaviour. Health information is usually incorporated within various school subjects such as science, biology, home economics and physical education. However, teaching aimed at changing the behaviour of students is not part of the traditional education system.
There are ways to fill this gap. Setting up and supporting health or hygiene clubs in schools, and the effective involvement of the Health Post, are important.
You can take an active role in this by regular inspection and advising the school community in your area. You can take an active lead in coordinating and involving existing local health facilities in the promotion of school hygiene and sanitation. Detailed information on how to plan, organise and deliver health messages for school health promotion is found in the Health Education, Advocacy and Community Mobilisation Module.
Keeping the body clean, face and handwashing, wearing clean clothes, foot hygiene, and nail care are all important to students. The physical and aesthetic values of the school environment and physical buildings need to satisfy the physical, physiological and psychological development of students. The important aspects of a safe and healthful school environment are:. You should work in collaboration with the appropriate experts of the wo reda education office for the satisfaction of the above needs.
This can be discussed at the kebele cabinet meetings. Many students may walk hours to get to school. The provision of safe water for drinking and personal hygiene is important and there needs to be adequate facilities in proportion to the number of students.
The Ministry of Health advises one water tap per fifty students. Low-cost water fountains and water taps arranged in a water trough design are acceptable for schools. They should be mounted at the appropriate height from the ground surface to match the height of the students Figure 5. Water availability should be about five litres per day per student and water must be available throughout the school day.
A water storage tank may be necessary to provide water reserves and satisfy the demand at peak hours. The sullage wastewater that results because of handwashing must be drained to a seepage or soak pit, or ditch. The provision of latrines is also extremely important. In addition, separate latrines for girls and boys need to be provided to encourage girls to continue their education. The usual type of latrine at schools is a communal dry pit latrine equipped with a vent.
Discarded paper and cartons are the usual type of waste at schools. There could also be chemical wastes from school laboratories. Schools should have the following facilities:. The cleanliness of the classroom is vital for a good learning process. Students should be involved in the maintenance of classroom cleanliness on a daily basis.
The floor of the classroom should be smooth to reduce dust Figure 5. Dust and cracks in the floor must be avoided because these are good hiding sites for biting animals such as the chigger also known as the chigger red bug or harvest mite.
Detention homes such as prisons and jails, including temporary arrest facilities, must be hygienic. The transmission of communicable diseases such as diarrhoea, relapsing fever, scabies and typhus fever could be possible due to crowding and poor sanitation in prisons. The following provisions are important to check:. There may be different types of local health facilities in your area, such as Health Posts, private and public clinics and health centres.
The benefit of health facilities is well understood. However, the risks associated with health facilities are not always well understood by patients and the general population.
Health facilities generate infectious wastes, needles and other sharps that are potentially harmful. The possibility of acquiring infections is another concern. The sanitation provision that you have learned about healthful housing in Study Session 4 is also applicable in these institutions.
In particular, you should be aware of the following requirements for the Health Post you are working in:. Various offices are organised to serve the population, such as the kebele administrative office.
The supply of safe water and handwashing facilities are important for the provision of personal hygiene. Churches and mosques may be present in your kebele.
The need for environmental health service to the church servants on one hand, and to the attending people on the other hand, is the point of concern. The provision of a safe water supply with its auxiliaries, and the development of latrines in agreed sites should have priority.
Proper liquid and solid waste management are also important areas of intervention. You can find a mill house in almost every kebele. The basic principles of healthful housing are also applicable in mill house sanitation.
The location of the mill house should not be a source of nuisance to the community such as from noise, flour dust and wastes.
There must be adequate light and natural ventilation at the workplace. The provision of latrines, drinking water and waste management solid and liquid waste is important. The presence of handwashing and shower facilities is important for personal hygiene of the workers. Floor and walls should be easy to clean. The installation of an exhaust pipe for waste flour is necessary.
The safety of workers must be maintained through the proper guarding of machines, provision of personal protective devices head cover, goggles, boots, ear plugs or muffs, working clothes. There are certain planning activities that you must do in a stepwise way. The approach is the same as that used in Study Session 4 in Section 4. The activities are briefly described below. This requires the identification of institutions by type and number: schools both elementary and high schools , prisons both temporary and permanent prisons , health facilities public and private clinics; you should leave the health centres and hospitals for the woreda environmental health worker , public offices e.
You should only consider those that are present at kebele level. Problems can be identified by carrying out a sanitary inspection of each institution. Before your inspection visit you need to prepare a checklist of basic hygiene requirements that is relevant to the institutions and your local context. An example of a checklist for a school is shown in Table 5.
The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Naughton, C. Introduction to the Importance of Sanitation. In: J. Rose and B.
Water, sanitation and hygiene WASH are crucial but often underplayed parts of the prevention and control of a number of neglected tropical diseases NTDs. Access to safe water and adequate sanitation, together with good hygiene practices, can reduce the transmission of some NTDs, for example trachoma and intestinal worms page Trachoma is transmitted by flies, fomites e. Preventing transmission of trachoma can be achieved through access to clean water, appropriate hygiene practices that promote face washing, and access to proper sanitation for the disposal of human waste. Worms are transmitted through faecal-oral contact or enter through the skin of the feet in areas of open defecation. Access to safe water and adequate sanitation will help communities affected by both trachoma and soil-transmitted helminths STH to escape from the perpetual cycle of infection and reinfection.
Therefore it is very important to safeguard adequate sanitation and hygiene Available on the worldwide web:imstea.org [cited ].
By Guest Blogger on July 6, Clean water is one of the few things in life that never fails to live up to expectations. It is difficult to overstate the importance of having it.
After seeing the success of our hygiene education program, Water for South Sudan plans to launch a pilot sanitation program next year. The WFSS Hygiene Program has helped South Sudanese villagers learn the importance of maintaining good hygiene by changing behaviors such as hand-washing. Our hygiene team helps villages identify hygiene practices in need of improvement, and helps create a plan to move forward. We have seen how improved hygiene practices can help extend the impact of clean water.
Sanitation is more than just toilets, it encompasses the facilities, behaviors, and services that prevent diseases caused by contact with human waste.
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