File Name: project planning and management.zip
Plans, facades, sections, general plan. Table of Contents. Obtain buy-in; begin to get included in meeting agendas for approval.
Lecture Notes for Project Management. Chapter 3 Project Planning Once a project is selected for execution, the structural project planning approach prescribes that the project get planned in detail prior to the actual start of the project. Project planning consists of two main stages: Risk Management and Project Scheduling. The goal of the risk management stage is to identify project risks and take the necessary precautions. The goal of project scheduling is to make a detailed schedule of all the tasks that need to performed, with specific time frames and resource allocations.
Project management is to some extent risk management which tries to systematically manage this uncertainty in order to increase the likelihood of meeting project objectives Risk management deals with uncertainty, which comes in two flavours: Known unknowns: Identified potential problems. One can prepare for these risks. Unknown unknowns: These relate to problems that arrive unexpectedly and cannot be anticipated. However, good project managers still expect these to happen.
All project management activities can be considered as managing risk, but the risk management process is a specific set of activities performed consciously to identify and manage risks on the project. There is a difference between project risk and business risk.
Business risk relates to creating the right project output. Business risk is seldom the responsibility of the project manager, but rather of the project owner.
Project risk relates to making sure the project produces the promised results within budget and on time. This is the responsibility of the project manager. Analyse and prioritize: Assess each risk in terms of its possible damage and likelihood of occurrence.
Establish reserves: Set aside additional funding for the project that will be used for known risks and unknown risks. Continuous risk management: Implement strategies and monitor the effects of these changes on the project. Generate a list as big as possible with potential risks.
Once you have a list of potential risks, organize them by combining similar risks and order this list by magnitude and probability of the risk. Another approach to identify risks is by means of interviews, which is a more structured approach than brainstorming. To support the identification of project risks, one could use a risk profile.
This is a list of questions that address traditional areas of uncertainty on projects. Creating such a risk profile should be an ongoing process, such that the end of the project, what has been learned will incorporated into the profile. Another source of risk identification is the other main activity during project planning, i. Activities and tasks which are hard to estimate often imply a substantial amount of uncertainty. Identifying the cause of this uncertainty will most likely reveal project risks.
Note that the goal of this step is NOT yet to identify ways to minimize or eliminate risks. The goal is only to identify risks. After creating an initial list of potential risks, a first step is to quickly eliminate risks from your list which are not worth worrying.
Next, one should sort the remaining risks in order of importance. This step should be performed quickly and based on intuition. A next step could be to concisely describe and analyse the remaining risks by clearly formulating the condition which causes the uncertainty as well as the consequence of this situation in terms of the possible negative outcomes.
Once the risks are defined, the consequences in terms of cost, schedule and damage to the project must be described as well.
Finally, each risk must also receive an estimate of the probability that the risk will actually occur. Providing an exact estimate of both the impact and the probability of occurrence is often difficult. This should never be an excuse to skip this step. Instead, when exact estimates are difficult to obtain, one could switch to an ordinal scale with e. There are five ways to deal with identified risks: Accept the risks. This implies that you understand the risk and decide to do nothing about it.
This is a common strategy when the impact or the probability are low. Avoid the risk. You can try to avoid a risk by choosing not do to specific parts of the project or by selecting a lower-risk option for meeting the project goals. Contingency plans. When you cannot ignore, nor avoid the risk and have no impact on the probability, you can try to reduce the negative impact and have a fall-back plan in place when the risk becomes reality. Note that contingency plans require a continuous monitoring of the risks, such that you can activate the continuous plans on time.
This implies that this strategy can only be efficient if there is a way to detect the risk on time. Transfer the risk. This strategy typically boils down to paying for insurance. Another approach is setting up a fixed-price contract that will get the work done on time for a fixed price. Note that this could however introduce new risks as more external parties get involved.
Mitigate the risk. This strategy tries to reduce the risk and more particularly the probability that the risk occurs. This often implies taking extra actions. Such contingency and reserve funds serve the purpose to account for known un-knowns. Unknown unknowns are never accounted for by such reserves.
Instead, management reserves must be used for risks that cannot be anticipated. Risk management only deals with anticipated risks. However, as the project progresses, more information is gained, also on potential risks.
Therefore, risk management should be a continuous effort. This includes: Monitoring known risks. Checking for new risks. Repeating the risk management framework for newly identified risks. The classical approach of project management relies heavily on upfront planning.
We first plan everything prior to execution. Developing a project schedule can be broken down in following steps: Develop a work breakdown structure. Identify task relationships. Estimate work packages. Calculate initial schedule. Assign and level resources. This is typically achieved by developing the Work Breakdown Structure WBS of a project, which is a tool for breaking down a project into its component parts.
Traditionally, a WBS focussed on tasks, more recently there has been a shift towards deliverables. Building a WBS helps to: Provide a detailed illustration of project scope. Monitor progress. The tasks on the WBS become the basis for monitoring progress, because each is a measurable unit of work. Create accurate cost and schedule estimates.
Build project teams as it provides clear work assignments to the team members and provides an overview how his or her work fit into the overall effort.
A WBS breaks all the work into separate tasks of which two types exist: Summary tasks. A summary tasks includes several subordinate tasks and is not actually executed. Its purpose is to summarize more detailed tasks, called work packages. Work packages. These are the tasks that actually require execution. Creating manual can be the summary tasks which consists of the work packages writing content, setting layout, proofreading and printing manual. Developing a WBS typically follows three steps: List the major deliverables or high-level tasks.
Name all the tasks required to produce deliverables. Organize the WBS. You can start from the deliverables mentioned in the statement-of-work and turn them into the major summary tasks. This is often the most difficult step in the planning process and requires a good understanding of how to produce the project outcome. Give each task work package and summary task a name that describes an activity which produces some specific output.
To ensure that the work packages are the correct size, following rules can be applied as rule of thumb. No task should be smaller than 8 labour hours or larger than These limits might need adjustment depending on the kind of project and availability of non-stop working time. No task should be longer than the time between two reporting meetings. Break work packages down to smaller tasks if: It makes the task easier to estimate.
It makes the task easier to assign. It makes the task easier to track. Different ways of organizing work packages emphasizes different aspects of a project. Make sure that summary tasks are meaningful as their sole purpose is for communication or visibility. These summary tasks communicate what your project is about.
Planning is not just the work project schedule rather than a complete set of plan that should cover all-important aspects of project. The paper will be in academic.
Problems arise in every organization. These problems and their alternative solutions establish some elements of change around which the organization must adapt. Projects are generally established to carry out these changes and someone is always responsible for each project's successful completion. Every project is unique in terms of the problems that arise, the priorities and resources assigned it, the environment in which it operates, and the project manager's attitude and style used to guide and control project activities.
Lecture Notes for Project Management. Chapter 3 Project Planning Once a project is selected for execution, the structural project planning approach prescribes that the project get planned in detail prior to the actual start of the project. Project planning consists of two main stages: Risk Management and Project Scheduling.
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Planning may not be the most enjoyable component of managing projects, but it is the most vital part for reducing risk and failure rates. Here's why. Project planning plays an essential role in helping guide stakeholders, sponsors, teams, and the project manager through other project phases. Planning is needed to identify desired goals, reduce risks, avoid missed deadlines, and ultimately deliver the agreed product, service or result.
The process of planning and managing projects follows a logical, continuous cycle. Each phase of the project leads to the next. • The identify stage includes a.
C Punmia and K. K Khandelwal. The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks. EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford buying books is our aim.
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